Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016

Commission File No. 001-14817

 

 

PACCAR Inc

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   91-0351110
(State of incorporation)   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
777 - 106th Ave. N.E., Bellevue, WA   98004
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (425) 468-7400

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $1 par value   The NASDAQ Global Select Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes  ☐    No  ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for at least the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No  ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2016:

Common Stock, $1 par value - $17.86 billion

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of January 31, 2017:

Common Stock, $1 par value - 350,896,879 shares

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the proxy statement for the annual stockholders meeting to be held on April 25, 2017 are incorporated by reference into Part III.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PACCAR Inc – FORM 10-K

INDEX

 

         Page  

PART I

    

ITEM 1.

 

BUSINESS

     3   

ITEM 1A.

 

RISK FACTORS

     7   

ITEM 1B.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

     9   

ITEM 2.

 

PROPERTIES

     9   

ITEM 3.

 

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

     9   

ITEM 4.

 

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

     9   

PART II

    

ITEM 5.

 

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

     10   

ITEM 6.

 

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

     12   

ITEM 7.

 

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

     13   

ITEM 7A.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

     37   

ITEM 8.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

     38   

ITEM 9.

 

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

     82   

ITEM 9A.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

     82   

ITEM 9B.

 

OTHER INFORMATION

     82   

PART III

    

ITEM 10.

 

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

     82   

ITEM 11.

 

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

     84   

ITEM 12.

 

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

     84   

ITEM 13.

 

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

     84   

ITEM 14.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

     84   

PART IV

    

ITEM 15.

 

EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

     85   

SIGNATURES

       89   

 

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PART I

 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

 

(a) General Development of Business

PACCAR Inc (the Company or PACCAR), incorporated under the laws of Delaware in 1971, is the successor to Pacific Car and Foundry Company which was incorporated in Washington in 1924. The Company traces its predecessors to Seattle Car Manufacturing Company formed in 1905.

 

(b) Financial Information About Industry Segments and Geographic Areas

Information about the Company’s industry segments and geographic areas in response to Items 101(b), (c)(1)(i), and (d) of Regulation S-K appears in Item 8, Note R, of this Form 10-K.

 

(c) Narrative Description of Business

PACCAR is a multinational company operating in three principal industry segments:

 

  (1) The Truck segment includes the design, manufacture and distribution of high-quality, light-, medium- and heavy-duty commercial trucks. Heavy-duty trucks have a gross vehicle weight (GVW) of over 33,000 lbs (Class 8) in North America and over 16 metric tonnes in Europe. Medium-duty trucks have a GVW ranging from 19,500 to 33,000 lbs (Class 6 to 7) in North America, and in Europe, light- and medium-duty trucks range between 6 to 16 metric tonnes. Trucks are configured with engine in front of cab (conventional) or cab-over-engine (COE).

 

  (2) The Parts segment includes the distribution of aftermarket parts for trucks and related commercial vehicles.

 

  (3) The Financial Services segment includes finance and leasing products and services provided to customers and dealers. PACCAR’s finance and leasing activities are principally related to PACCAR products and associated equipment.

PACCAR’s Other business includes the manufacturing and marketing of industrial winches.

TRUCKS

PACCAR’s trucks are marketed under the Kenworth, Peterbilt and DAF nameplates. These trucks, which are built in three plants in the United States, three in Europe and one each in Australia, Brasil, Canada and Mexico, are used worldwide for over-the-road and off-highway hauling of commercial and consumer goods. The Company also manufactures engines, primarily for use in the Company’s trucks, at its facilities in Columbus, Mississippi; Eindhoven, the Netherlands; and Ponta Grossa, Brasil. PACCAR competes in the North American Class 8 market, primarily with Kenworth and Peterbilt conventional models. These trucks are assembled at facilities in Chillicothe, Ohio; Denton, Texas; Renton, Washington; Ste. Therese, Canada and Mexicali, Mexico. PACCAR also competes in the North American Class 6 to 7 markets primarily with Kenworth and Peterbilt conventional models. These trucks are assembled at facilities in Ste. Therese, Canada and in Mexicali, Mexico. PACCAR competes in the European light/medium market with DAF COE trucks assembled in the United Kingdom (U.K.) by Leyland, one of PACCAR’s wholly owned subsidiaries, and participates in the European heavy market with DAF COE trucks assembled in the Netherlands and the U.K. PACCAR competes in the Brazilian heavy truck market with DAF models assembled at Ponta Grossa in the state of Paraná, Brasil. PACCAR competes in the Australian light and heavy truck markets with Kenworth conventional and COE models assembled at its facility at Bayswater in the state of Victoria, Australia, and DAF COE models assembled in the U.K. Commercial truck manufacturing comprises the largest segment of PACCAR’s business and accounts for 75% of total 2016 net sales and revenues.

Substantially all trucks are sold to independent dealers. The Kenworth and Peterbilt nameplates are marketed and distributed by separate divisions in the U.S. and a foreign subsidiary in Canada. The Kenworth nameplate is also marketed and distributed by foreign subsidiaries in Mexico and Australia. The DAF nameplate is marketed and distributed worldwide by a foreign subsidiary headquartered in the Netherlands and is also marketed and distributed by foreign subsidiaries in Brasil and Australia. The decision to operate as a subsidiary or as a division is incidental to PACCAR’s Truck segment operations and reflects legal, tax and regulatory requirements in the various countries where PACCAR operates.

 

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The Truck segment utilizes centrally managed purchasing, information technology, technical research and testing, treasury and finance functions. Some manufacturing plants in North America produce trucks for more than one nameplate, while other plants produce trucks for only one nameplate, depending on various factors. Best manufacturing practices within the Company are shared on a routine basis reflecting the similarity of the business models employed by each nameplate.

The Company’s trucks have a reputation for high quality and are essentially custom products, most of which are ordered by dealers according to customer specification. Some units are ordered by dealers for stocking to meet the needs of certain customers who require immediate delivery or for customers that require chassis to be fitted with specialized bodies. For a significant portion of the Company’s truck operations, major components, such as engines, transmissions and axles, as well as a substantial percentage of other components, are purchased from component manufacturers pursuant to PACCAR and customer specifications. DAF, which is more vertically integrated, manufactures PACCAR engines and axles and a higher percentage of other components for its heavy truck models. The Company also manufactures engines at its Columbus, Mississippi facility. In 2016, the Company installed PACCAR engines in 47% of the Company’s Kenworth and Peterbilt heavy-duty trucks in the U.S. and Canada and substantially all of the DAF heavy-duty trucks sold throughout the world. Engines not manufactured by the Company are purchased from Cummins Inc. (Cummins). The Company purchased a significant portion of its transmissions from Eaton Corporation Plc. (Eaton) and ZF Friedrichshafen AG (ZF). The Company has long-term agreements with Cummins, Eaton and ZF to provide for continuity of supply. A loss of supply from Cummins, Eaton or ZF, and the resulting interruption in the production of trucks, would have a material effect on the Company’s results. Purchased materials and parts include raw materials, partially processed materials, such as castings, and finished components manufactured by independent suppliers. Raw materials, partially processed materials and finished components make up approximately 90% of the cost of new trucks. The value of major finished truck components manufactured by independent suppliers ranges from approximately 33% in Europe to approximately 85% in North America. In addition to materials, the Company’s cost of sales includes labor and factory overhead, vehicle delivery and warranty. Accordingly, except for certain factory overhead costs such as depreciation, property taxes and utilities, the Company’s cost of sales are highly correlated to sales.

The Company’s DAF subsidiary purchases fully assembled cabs from a competitor, Renault V.I., for its European light-duty product line pursuant to a joint product development and long-term supply contract. Sales of trucks manufactured with these cabs amounted to approximately 4% of consolidated revenues in 2016. A short-term loss of supply, and the resulting interruption in the production of these trucks, would not have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations. However, a loss of supply for an extended period of time would either require the Company to contract for an alternative source of supply or to manufacture cabs itself.

Other than these components, the Company is not limited to any single source for any significant component, although the sudden inability of a supplier to deliver components could have a temporary adverse effect on production of certain products. No significant shortages of materials or components were experienced in 2016. Manufacturing inventory levels are based upon production schedules, and orders are placed with suppliers accordingly.

Key factors affecting Truck segment earnings include the number of new trucks sold in the markets served and the margins realized on the sales. The Company’s sales of new trucks are dependent on the size of the truck markets served and the Company’s share of those markets. Truck segment sales and margins tend to be cyclical based on the level of overall economic activity, the availability of capital and the amount of freight being transported. The Company’s costs for trucks consist primarily of material costs, which are influenced by the price of commodities such as steel, copper, aluminum and petroleum. The Company utilizes long-term supply agreements to reduce the variability of the unit cost of purchased materials and finished components. The Company’s spending on research and development varies based on product development cycles and government requirements such as the periodic need to meet diesel engine emissions and vehicle fuel efficiency standards in the various markets served. The Company maintains rigorous control of selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses and seeks to minimize such costs.

There are four principal competitors in the U.S. and Canada commercial truck market. The Company’s share of the U.S. and Canadian Class 8 market was 28.5% of retail sales in 2016, and the Company’s medium-duty market share was 16.2%. In Europe, there are six principal competitors in the commercial truck market, including parent companies to two competitors of the Company in the U.S. In 2016, DAF had a 15.5% share of the European heavy-duty market and a 10.1% share of the light/medium market. These markets are highly competitive in price, quality and service. PACCAR is not dependent on any single customer for its sales. There are no significant seasonal variations in sales.

The Peterbilt, Kenworth and DAF nameplates are recognized internationally and play an important role in the marketing of the Company’s truck products. The Company engages in a continuous program of trademark and trade name protection in all marketing areas of the world.

 

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The Company’s truck products are subject to noise, emission and safety regulations. Competing manufacturers are subject to the same regulations. The Company believes the cost of complying with these regulations will not be detrimental to its business.

The Company had a total production backlog of $4.8 billion at the end of 2016. Within this backlog, orders scheduled for delivery within three months (90 days) are considered to be firm. The 90-day backlog approximated $2.1 billion at December 31, 2016, $2.8 billion at December 31, 2015 and $3.1 billion at December 31, 2014. Production of the year-end 2016 backlog is expected to be substantially completed during 2017.

PARTS

The Parts segment includes the distribution of aftermarket parts for trucks and related commercial vehicles to over 2,100 Kenworth, Peterbilt and DAF dealers in 98 countries around the world. Aftermarket truck parts are sold and delivered to the Company’s independent dealers through the Company’s 17 strategically located parts distribution centers (PDCs) located in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, Mexico and South America. Parts are primarily purchased from various suppliers and also manufactured by the Company. Aftermarket parts inventory levels are determined largely by anticipated customer demand and the need for timely delivery. The Parts segment accounted for 18% of total 2016 net sales and revenues.

PACCAR’s new 160,000 square-foot PDC in Renton, Washington opened in the second quarter of 2016. The new facility increased the distribution capacity for the Company’s dealers and customers in the northwestern U.S. and western Canada.

Key factors affecting Parts segment earnings include the aftermarket parts sold in the markets served and the margins realized on the sales. Aftermarket parts sales are influenced by the total number of the Company’s trucks in service and the average age and mileage of those trucks. To reflect the benefit the Parts segment receives from costs incurred by the Truck segment, certain factory overhead, research and development, engineering and SG&A expenses are allocated from the Truck segment to the Parts segment. The Company’s cost for parts sold consists primarily of material costs, which are influenced by the price of commodities such as steel, copper, aluminum and petroleum. The Company utilizes long-term supply agreements to reduce the variability of the cost of parts sold. The Company maintains rigorous control of SG&A expenses and seeks to minimize such costs.

FINANCIAL SERVICES

PACCAR Financial Services (PFS) operates in 23 countries in North America, Europe, Australia and South America through wholly owned finance companies operating under the PACCAR Financial trade name. PFS also conducts full service leasing operations through wholly owned subsidiaries in North America, Germany and Australia under the PacLease trade name. Selected dealers in North America are franchised to provide full service leasing. PFS provides its franchisees with equipment financing and administrative support. PFS also operates its own full service lease outlets. PFS’s retail loan and lease customers consist of small, medium and large commercial trucking companies, independent owner/operators and other businesses and acquire their PACCAR trucks principally from independent PACCAR dealers. PFS accounted for 7% of total net sales and revenues and 59% of total assets in 2016.

The Company’s finance receivables are classified as dealer wholesale, dealer retail and customer retail segments. The dealer wholesale segment consists of truck inventory financing to independent PACCAR dealers. The dealer retail segment consists of loans and leases to participating dealers and franchises, which use the proceeds to fund their customers’ acquisition of trucks and related equipment. The customer retail segment consists of loans and leases directly to customers for their acquisition of trucks and related equipment. Customer retail receivables are further segregated by fleet and owner/operator classes. The fleet class consists of customers operating more than five trucks. All others are considered owner/operators. Similar methods are employed to assess and monitor credit risk for each class.

Finance receivables are secured by the trucks and related equipment being financed or leased. The terms of loan and lease contracts generally range from three to five years depending on the type and use of equipment. Payment is required on dealer inventory financing when the floored truck is sold to a customer or upon maturity of the flooring loan, whichever comes first. Dealer inventory loans generally mature within one year.

The Company funds its financial services activities primarily from collections on existing finance receivables and borrowings in the capital markets. The primary sources of borrowings in the capital markets are commercial paper and medium-term notes issued in public and private offerings and, to a lesser extent, bank loans. An additional source of funds is loans from other PACCAR companies. PFS attempts to match the maturity and interest rate characteristics of its debt with the maturity and interest rate characteristics of loans and leases.

 

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Key factors affecting the earnings of the Financial Services segment include the volume of new loans and leases, the yield earned on the loans and leases, the costs of funding investments in loans and leases and the ability to collect the amounts owed to PFS. New loan and lease volume is dependent on the volume of new trucks sold by Kenworth, Peterbilt and DAF and the share of those truck sales that are financed by the Financial Services segment. The Company’s Financial Services market share is influenced by the extent of competition in the financing market. PFS’s primary competitors include commercial banks and independent finance and leasing companies.

The revenue earned on loans and leases depends on market interest and lease rates and the ability of PFS to differentiate itself from the competition by superior industry knowledge and customer service. Dealer inventory loans have variable rates with rates reset monthly based on an index pertaining to the applicable local market. Retail loan and lease contracts normally have fixed rates over the contract term. PFS obtains funds either through fixed rate borrowings or through variable rate borrowings, a portion of which have been effectively converted to fixed rate through the use of interest-rate contracts. This enables PFS to obtain a stable spread between the cost of borrowing and the yield on fixed rate contracts over the contract term. Included in Financial Services cost of revenues is depreciation on equipment on operating leases. The amount of depreciation on operating leases principally depends on the acquisition cost of leased equipment, the term of the leases, which generally ranges from three to five years, and the residual value of the leases, which generally ranges from 30% to 60%. The margin earned is the difference between the revenues on loan and lease contracts and the direct costs of operation, including interest and depreciation.

PFS incurs credit losses when customers are unable to pay the full amounts due under loan and finance lease contracts. PFS takes a conservative approach to underwriting new retail business in order to minimize credit losses.

The ability of customers to pay their obligations to PFS depends on the state of the general economy, the extent of freight demand, freight rates and the cost of fuel, among other factors. PFS limits its exposure to any one customer, with no one customer or dealer balance representing over 5% of the aggregate portfolio assets. PFS generally requires a down payment and secures its interest in the underlying truck collateral and may require other collateral or guarantees. In the event of default, PFS will repossess the truck and sell it in the open market primarily through its dealer network. PFS will also seek to recover any shortfall between the amounts owed and the amounts recovered from sale of the collateral. The amount of credit losses depends on the rate of default on loans and finance leases and, in the event of repossession, the ability to recover the amount owed from sale of the collateral which is affected by used truck prices. PFS’s experience over the last fifty years financing truck sales has been that periods of economic weakness result in higher past dues and increased rates of repossession. Used truck prices also tend to fall during periods of economic weakness. As a result, credit losses tend to increase during periods of economic weakness. PFS provides an allowance for credit losses based on specifically identified customer risks and an analysis of estimated losses inherent in the portfolio, considering the amount of past due accounts, the trends of used truck prices and the economic environment in each of its markets.

Financial Services SG&A expenses consist primarily of personnel costs associated with originating and servicing the loan and lease portfolios. These costs vary somewhat depending on overall levels of business activity, but given the ongoing nature of servicing activities, tend to be relatively stable.

OTHER BUSINESSES

Other businesses include a division of the Company which manufactures industrial winches in two U.S. plants and markets them under the Braden, Carco and Gearmatic nameplates. The markets for these products are highly competitive, and the Company competes with a number of well established firms. Sales of industrial winches were less than 1% of total net sales and revenues in 2016, 2015 and 2014.

The Braden, Carco and Gearmatic trademarks and trade names are recognized internationally and play an important role in the marketing of those products.

PATENTS

The Company owns numerous patents which relate to all product lines. Although these patents are considered important to the overall conduct of the Company’s business, no patent or group of patents is considered essential to a material part of the Company’s business.

REGULATION

As a manufacturer of highway trucks, the Company is subject to the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards promulgated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as well as environmental laws and regulations in the United States, and is subject to similar regulations in all countries where it has operations and where its trucks are distributed. In addition, the Company is subject to certain other licensing requirements to do business in the United States and Europe. The Company believes it is in compliance with laws and regulations applicable to safety standards, the environment and other licensing requirements in all countries where it has operations and where its trucks are distributed.

 

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Information regarding the effects that compliance with international, federal, state and local provisions regulating the environment have on the Company’s capital and operating expenditures and the Company’s involvement in environmental cleanup activities is included in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements in Items 7 and 8, respectively.

EMPLOYEES

On December 31, 2016, the Company had approximately 23,000 employees.

OTHER DISCLOSURES

The Company’s filings on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K and any amendments to those reports can be found on the Company’s website www.paccar.com free of charge as soon as practicable after the report is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The information on the Company’s website is not incorporated by reference into this report. In addition, the Company’s reports filed with the SEC can be found at www.sec.gov.

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

The following are significant risks which could have a material negative impact on the Company’s financial condition or results of operations.

Business and Industry Risks

Commercial Truck Market Demand is Variable. The Company’s business is highly sensitive to global and national economic conditions as well as economic conditions in the industries and markets it serves. Negative economic conditions and outlook can materially weaken demand for the Company’s equipment and services. The yearly demand for commercial vehicles may increase or decrease more than overall gross domestic product in markets the Company serves, which are principally North America and Europe. Demand for commercial vehicles may also be affected by the introduction of new vehicles and technologies by the Company or its competitors.

Competition and Prices. The Company operates in a highly competitive environment, which could adversely affect the Company’s sales and pricing. Financial results depend largely on the ability to develop, manufacture and market competitive products that profitably meet customer demand.

Production Costs and Supplier Capacity. The Company’s products are exposed to variability in material and commodity costs. Commodity or component price increases and significant shortages of component products may adversely impact the Company’s financial results or use of its production capacity. Many of the Company’s suppliers also supply automotive manufacturers, and factors that adversely affect the automotive industry can also have adverse effects on these suppliers and the Company. Supplier delivery performance can be adversely affected if increased demand for these suppliers’ products exceeds their production capacity. Unexpected events, including natural disasters, may increase the Company’s cost of doing business or disrupt the Company’s or its suppliers’ operations.

Liquidity Risks, Credit Ratings and Costs of Funds. Disruptions or volatility in global financial markets could limit the Company’s sources of liquidity, or the liquidity of customers, dealers and suppliers. A lowering of the Company’s credit ratings could increase the cost of borrowing and adversely affect access to capital markets. The Company’s Financial Services segment obtains funds for its operations from commercial paper, medium-term notes and bank debt. If the markets for commercial paper, medium-term notes and bank debt do not provide the necessary liquidity in the future, the Financial Services segment may experience increased costs or may have to limit its financing of retail and wholesale assets. This could result in a reduction of the number of vehicles the Company is able to produce and sell to customers.

The Financial Services Industry is Highly Competitive. The Company’s Financial Services segment competes with banks, other commercial finance companies and financial services firms which may have lower costs of borrowing, higher leverage or market share goals that result in a willingness to offer lower interest rates, which may lead to decreased margins, lower market share or both. A decline in the Company’s truck unit sales and a decrease in truck residual values due to lower used truck pricing are also factors which may affect the Company’s Financial Services segment.

 

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The Financial Services Segment is Subject to Credit Risk. The Financial Services segment is exposed to the risk of loss arising from the failure of a customer, dealer or counterparty to meet the terms of the loans, leases and derivative contracts with the Company. Although the financial assets of the Financial Services segment are secured by underlying equipment collateral, in the event a customer cannot meet its obligations to the Company, there is a risk that the value of the underlying collateral will not be sufficient to recover the amounts owed to the Company, resulting in credit losses.

Interest-Rate Risks. The Financial Services segment is subject to interest-rate risks, because increases in interest rates can reduce demand for its products, increase borrowing costs and potentially reduce interest margins. PFS uses derivative contracts to match the interest rate characteristics of its debt to the interest rate characteristics of its finance receivables in order to mitigate the risk of changing interest rates.

Litigation, Product Liability and Regulatory Actions. On July 19, 2016, the European Commission (EC) concluded its investigation of all major European truck manufacturers and reached a settlement with DAF. Following the settlement, claims and a petition to certify a claim as a class action have been filed against DAF and other truck manufacturers. Others may bring EC-related claims against the Company or its subsidiaries. While the Company believes it has meritorious defenses, such claims will likely take a significant period of time to resolve. An adverse outcome of such proceedings could have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations. The Company’s products are subject to recall for environmental, performance and safety-related issues. Product recalls, lawsuits, regulatory actions or increases in the reserves the Company establishes for contingencies may increase the Company’s costs and lower profits. The Company’s reputation and its brand names are valuable assets, and claims or regulatory actions, even if unsuccessful or without merit, could adversely affect the Company’s reputation and brand images because of adverse publicity.

Information Technology. The Company relies on information technology systems, including the internet and other computer systems, which may be subject to disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components; power outages; hardware failures; computer viruses; or outside parties attempting to disrupt the Company’s business or gain unauthorized access to the Company’s electronic data. The Company maintains protections to guard against such events. If the Company’s computer systems were to be damaged, disrupted or breached, it could result in a negative impact on the Company’s operating results and could also cause reputational damage, business disruption or the disclosure of confidential data.

Political, Regulatory and Economic Risks

Multinational Operations. The Company’s global operations are exposed to political, economic and other risks and events beyond its control in the countries in which the Company operates. The Company may be adversely affected by political instabilities, fuel shortages or interruptions in utility or transportation systems, natural calamities, wars, terrorism and labor strikes. Changes in government monetary or fiscal policies and international trade policies may impact demand for the Company’s products, financial results and competitive position. PACCAR’s global operations are subject to extensive trade, competition and anti-corruption laws and regulations that could impose significant compliance costs.

Environmental Regulations. The Company’s operations are subject to environmental laws and regulations that impose significant compliance costs. The Company could experience higher research and development and manufacturing costs due to changes in government requirements for its products, including changes in emissions, fuel, greenhouse gas or other regulations.

Currency Exchange and Translation. The Company’s consolidated financial results are reported in U.S. dollars, while significant operations are denominated in the currencies of other countries. Currency exchange rate fluctuations can affect the Company’s assets, liabilities and results of operations through both translation and transaction risk, as reported in the Company’s financial statements. The Company uses certain derivative financial instruments and localized production of its products to reduce, but not eliminate, the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.

 

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Accounting Estimates. In the preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, management uses estimates and makes judgments and assumptions that affect asset and liability values and the amounts reported as income and expense during the periods presented. Certain of these estimates, judgments and assumptions, such as residual values on operating leases, the allowance for credit losses, warranty and pension expenses and the provision for income taxes, are particularly sensitive. If actual results are different from estimates used by management, they may have a material impact on the financial statements. For additional disclosures regarding accounting estimates, see “Critical Accounting Policies” under Item 7 of this Form 10-K.

Taxes. Changes in statutory income tax rates in the countries in which the Company operates impact the Company’s effective tax rate. Changes to other taxes or the adoption of other new tax legislation could affect the Company’s provision for income taxes and related tax assets and liabilities.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

The Company and its subsidiaries own and operate manufacturing plants in five U.S. states, three countries in Europe, and in Australia, Brasil, Canada and Mexico. The Company also has 17 parts distribution centers, many sales and service offices, and finance and administrative offices which are operated in owned or leased premises in these and other locations. Facilities for product testing and research and development are located in Washington state and the Netherlands. The Company’s corporate headquarters is located in owned premises in Bellevue, Washington. The Company considers all of the properties used by its businesses to be suitable for their intended purposes.

The Company invests in facilities, equipment and processes to provide manufacturing and warehouse capacity to meet its customers’ needs and improve operating performance.

The following summarizes the number of the Company’s manufacturing plants and parts distribution centers by geographical location within indicated industry segments:

 

     U.S.      Canada      Australia      Mexico      Europe      So. America  

Truck

     4         1         1         1         3         1   

Parts

     6         2         1         1         5         2   

Other

     2                                           

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

The Company and its subsidiaries are parties to various lawsuits incidental to the ordinary course of business. Management believes that the disposition of such lawsuits will not materially affect the Company’s business or financial condition.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable.

 

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Table of Contents

PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

 

(a) Market Information, Holders, Dividends, Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans and Performance Graph.

Market Information, Holders and Dividends.

Common stock of the Company is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol PCAR. The table below reflects the range of trading prices as reported by The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC and cash dividends declared. There were 1,668 record holders of the common stock at December 31, 2016.

 

     2016      2015  
     DIVIDENDS      STOCK PRICE      DIVIDENDS      STOCK PRICE  

QUARTER

   DECLARED      HIGH      LOW      DECLARED      HIGH      LOW  

First

   $ .24       $ 55.60       $ 43.46       $ .22       $ 68.87       $ 59.33   

Second

     .24         60.86         48.17         .22         68.44         60.50   

Third

     .24         60.75         49.35         .24         66.43         51.51   

Fourth

     .24         68.50         53.38         .24         56.05         45.04   

Year-End Extra

     .60               1.40         

The Company expects to continue paying regular cash dividends, although there is no assurance as to future dividends because they are dependent upon future earnings, capital requirements and financial conditions.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans.

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2016 regarding compensation plans under which PACCAR equity securities are authorized for issuance.

 

     Number of Securities
Granted and to be
Issued on Exercise of
Outstanding Options
and Other Rights
     Weighted-average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding Options
     Securities Available
for Future Grant
 

Stock compensation plans
approved by stockholders

     5,062,131       $ 48.15         14,626,036   

All stock compensation plans have been approved by the stockholders.

The number of securities to be issued includes those issuable under the PACCAR Inc Long Term Incentive Plan (LTI Plan) and the Restricted Stock and Deferred Compensation Plan for Non-Employee Directors (RSDC Plan). Securities to be issued include 396,869 shares that represent deferred cash awards payable in stock. The weighted-average exercise price does not include the securities that represent deferred cash awards.

Securities available for future grant are authorized under the following two plans: (i) 13,795,810 shares under the LTI Plan, and (ii) 830,226 shares under the RSDC Plan.

 

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Stockholder Return Performance Graph.

The following line graph compares the yearly percentage change in the cumulative total stockholder return on the Company’s common stock, to the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s Composite 500 Stock Index and the return of the industry peer groups of companies identified in the graph (the “Peer Group Index”) for the last five fiscal years ended December 31, 2016. Standard & Poor’s has calculated a return for each company in the Peer Group Index weighted according to its respective capitalization at the beginning of each period with dividends reinvested on a monthly basis. Management believes that the identified companies and methodology used in the graph for the Peer Group Index provide a better comparison than other indices available. The Peer Group Index consists of AGCO Corporation, Caterpillar Inc., Cummins Inc., Dana Holding Corporation, Deere & Company, Eaton Corporation, Meritor Inc., Navistar International Corporation, Oshkosh Corporation, AB Volvo and CNH Industrial N.V. CNH Industrial N.V. is included from September 30, 2013, when it began trading on the New York Stock Exchange. The comparison assumes that $100 was invested December 31, 2011, in the Company’s common stock and in the stated indices and assumes reinvestment of dividends.

 

LOGO

 

             2011      2012      2013      2014      2015      2016  

PACCAR Inc

     100         125.12         168.78         199.47         145.37         201.17   

S&P 500 Index

     100         116.00         153.57         174.60         177.01         198.18   

Peer Group Index

     100         112.85         131.30         125.95         98.83         140.99   

 

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(b) Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities.

Not applicable.

 

(c) Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers.

On September 23, 2015, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a plan to repurchase up to $300 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock. As of December 31, 2016, the Company has repurchased 4.1 million shares for $206.7 million under this plan. The following are details of repurchases made under the plan for the fourth quarter of 2016:

 

Period

   Total Number of
Shares Purchased
     Average Price Paid
per Share
     Maximum Dollar
Value That May Yet
be Purchased

Under This Plan
 

October 1 - 31, 2016

     50,000       $ 55.01       $ 104,684,434   

November 1 - 30, 2016

     208,911       $ 54.63       $ 93,272,662   
  

 

 

       

Total

     258,911       $ 54.70       $ 93,272,662   
  

 

 

       

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

 

     2016      2015      2014      2013      2012  
     (millions except per share data)  

Truck, Parts and Other Net Sales

   $ 15,846.6       $ 17,942.8       $ 17,792.8       $ 15,948.9       $ 15,951.7   

Financial Services Revenues

     1,186.7         1,172.3         1,204.2         1,174.9         1,098.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Revenues

   $ 17,033.3       $ 19,115.1       $ 18,997.0       $ 17,123.8       $ 17,050.5   

Net Income

   $ 521.7       $ 1,604.0       $ 1,358.8       $ 1,171.3       $ 1,111.6   

Adjusted Net Income*

     1,354.7               

Net Income Per Share:

              

Basic

     1.49         4.52         3.83         3.31         3.13   

Diluted

     1.48         4.51         3.82         3.30         3.12   

Adjusted Diluted*

     3.85               

Cash Dividends Declared Per Share

     1.56         2.32         1.86         1.70         1.58   

Total Assets:

              

Truck, Parts and Other

     8,444.1         8,855.2         8,701.5         9,095.4         7,832.3   

Financial Services

     12,194.8         12,254.6         11,917.3         11,630.1         10,795.5   

Truck, Parts and Other Long-Term Debt

              150.0         150.0   

Financial Services Debt

     8,475.2         8,591.5         8,230.6         8,274.2         7,730.1   

Stockholders’ Equity

     6,777.6         6,940.4         6,753.2         6,634.3         5,846.9   

 

* See Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures for 2016 on page 33, and see Note K on page 60.

 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

OVERVIEW:

PACCAR is a global technology company whose Truck segment includes the design and manufacture of high-quality light-, medium- and heavy-duty commercial trucks. In North America, trucks are sold under the Kenworth and Peterbilt nameplates, in Europe, under the DAF nameplate and in Australia and South America, under the Kenworth and DAF nameplates. The Parts segment includes the distribution of aftermarket parts for trucks and related commercial vehicles. The Company’s Financial Services segment derives its earnings primarily from financing or leasing PACCAR products in North America, Europe and Australia. The Company’s Other business includes the manufacturing and marketing of industrial winches.

2016 Financial Highlights

•     Worldwide net sales and revenues were $17.03 billion in 2016 compared to $19.12 billion in 2015.

•     Truck sales were $12.77 billion in 2016 compared to $14.78 billion in 2015, reflecting lower industry truck sales in the U.S. and Canada, partially offset by higher truck sales in Europe.

•     Parts sales were $3.01 billion in 2016 compared to $3.06 billion in 2015, reflecting lower demand in North America and the effect of translating weaker foreign currencies into the U.S. dollar.

•     Financial Services revenues were $1.19 billion in 2016 compared to $1.17 billion in 2015, primarily due to higher average earning assets, partially offset by currency translation effects.

•     In 2016, PACCAR earned net income for the 78th consecutive year. Net income was $521.7 million ($1.48 per diluted share) in 2016. On July 19, 2016, the European Commission (EC) concluded its investigation of all major European truck manufacturers and reached a settlement with DAF. Excluding the $833.0 million non-recurring, non-tax-deductible EC charge recorded in the first half of 2016, the Company earned adjusted net income (non-GAAP) of $1.35 billion ($3.85 per diluted share) in 2016 compared to net income of $1.60 billion ($4.51 per diluted share) in 2015. The operating results reflect lower truck and parts sales in the U.S., partially offset by increased truck sales in Europe. See Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures on page 33.

•     Capital investments were $402.7 million in 2016 compared to $308.4 million in 2015, reflecting additional investments for the construction of a new DAF cab paint facility in Europe, the Peterbilt plant expansion in Denton, Texas and a new parts distribution center (PDC) in Renton, Washington.

•     After-tax return on beginning equity (ROE) was 7.5%. Excluding the EC charge, adjusted ROE (non-GAAP) was 19.5%. See Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures on page 33.

•     Research and development (R&D) expenses were $247.2 million in 2016 compared to $239.8 million in 2015.

In April 2016, the Company opened its new 160,000 square-foot PDC in Renton, Washington. The new PDC provides enhanced aftermarket support for dealers and customers in the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada. In addition, the Company will begin construction of a new 160,000 square-foot distribution center in Toronto, Canada in 2017.

The Company launched its DAF Connect telematics system in Europe, which provides customers with fleet management data to enhance vehicle and driver performance. Customers can access information through a secure online service, enabling them to optimize vehicle utilization and uptime, reduce operational expenses and enhance logistical efficiency.

Peterbilt constructed a 102,000 square-foot expansion to its truck manufacturing facility in Denton, Texas. The expansion is Peterbilt’s largest facility investment since the construction of the Denton plant in 1980 and will enhance manufacturing efficiency and provide additional production capacity.

The Company launched a new proprietary tandem axle in North America that reduces vehicle weight by up to 150 pounds and improves fuel economy. The axle became available to customers in January 2017. In addition, the Company is enhancing its range of MX engines for 2017. The updated PACCAR engines will deliver increased power and fuel efficiency and reduce operating costs for customers.

PACCAR Australia launched the Kenworth T610 truck in the fourth quarter of 2016. The Kenworth T610 represents the largest production investment in PACCAR Australia’s 45-year history. The T610 was designed specifically for Australia’s demanding road transport market and delivers industry-leading durability, reliability and fuel efficiency. The new 2.1 meter-wide cab features more driver space, enhanced visibility and excellent ergonomics.

 

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DAF is constructing a new $110 million environmentally friendly, robotic cab paint facility at its factory in Westerlo, Belgium, which will increase capacity and efficiency, and minimize emissions and energy consumption. The facility is expected to open in mid-2017. This strategic investment will support DAF’s market share growth and reflects DAF’s leadership in producing high quality vehicles.

PACCAR Financial Services (PFS) has operations covering four continents and 23 countries. PFS, with its global breadth and its rigorous credit application process, supports a portfolio of loans and leases with total assets of $12.19 billion that earned pre-tax profit of $306.5 million. PFS issued $1.94 billion in medium term notes during 2016 to support portfolio growth and repay maturing debt.

Truck Outlook

Truck industry retail sales in the U.S. and Canada in 2017 are expected to be 190,000 to 220,000 units compared to 215,700 in 2016. In Europe, the 2017 truck industry registrations for over 16-tonne vehicles are expected to be 260,000 to 290,000 units compared to 302,500 in 2016. In South America, heavy-duty truck industry sales were 59,000 units in 2016 and in 2017 are estimated to be in a range of 60,000 to 70,000 units.

Parts Outlook

In 2017, PACCAR Parts sales in North America are expected to grow 2-4% compared to 2016 sales. In 2017, Europe aftermarket sales are expected to increase 1-3%.

Financial Services Outlook

Based on the truck market outlook, average earning assets in 2017 are expected to be comparable to 2016. Current good levels of freight tonnage, freight rates and fleet utilization are contributing to customers’ profitability and cash flow. If current freight transportation conditions decline due to weaker economic conditions, then past due accounts, truck repossessions and credit losses would likely increase from the current low levels and new business volume would likely decline.

Capital Spending and R&D Outlook

Capital investments in 2017 are expected to be $375 to $425 million, and R&D is expected to be $250 to $280 million. The Company is investing for future growth in PACCAR’s integrated powertrain, advanced driver assistance and truck connectivity technologies, and additional capacity and operating efficiency of the Company’s manufacturing and parts distribution facilities. DAF’s new $110 million cab paint facility is on schedule to open in mid-2017.

See the Forward-Looking Statements section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis for factors that may affect these outlooks.

 

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS:

 

($ in millions, except per share amounts)                   

Year Ended December 31,

   2016     2015     2014  

Net sales and revenues:

      

Truck

   $ 12,767.3     $ 14,782.5     $ 14,594.0  

Parts

     3,005.7       3,060.1       3,077.5  

Other

     73.6       100.2       121.3  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Truck, Parts and Other

     15,846.6       17,942.8       17,792.8  

Financial Services

     1,186.7       1,172.3       1,204.2  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 17,033.3     $ 19,115.1     $ 18,997.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes:

      

Truck

   $ 1,125.8     $ 1,440.3     $ 1,160.1  

Parts

     543.8       555.6       496.7  

Other*

     (873.3     (43.2     (31.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Truck, Parts and Other

     796.3       1,952.7       1,624.9  

Financial Services

     306.5       362.6       370.4  

Investment income

     27.6       21.8       22.3  

Income taxes

     (608.7     (733.1     (658.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Income

   $ 521.7     $ 1,604.0     $ 1,358.8  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted earnings per share

   $ 1.48     $ 4.51     $ 3.82  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

After-tax return on revenues

     3.1     8.4     7.2

After-tax adjusted return on revenues (non-GAAP)**

     8.0    

 

* In 2016, Other includes the EC charge of $833.0.
** See Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Measures for 2016 on page 33.

The following provides an analysis of the results of operations for the Company’s three reportable segments - Truck, Parts and Financial Services. Where possible, the Company has quantified the impact of factors identified in the following discussion and analysis. In cases where it is not possible to quantify the impact of factors, the Company lists them in estimated order of importance. Factors for which the Company is unable to specifically quantify the impact include market demand, fuel prices, freight tonnage and economic conditions affecting the Company’s results of operations.

2016 Compared to 2015:

Truck

The Company’s Truck segment accounted for 75% of revenue in 2016 compared to 77% in 2015.

The Company’s new truck deliveries are summarized below:

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2016      2015      % CHANGE  

U.S. and Canada

     71,500        91,300        (22

Europe

     53,000        47,400        12  

Mexico, South America, Australia and other

     16,400        16,000        3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total units

     140,900        154,700        (9
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

In 2016, industry retail sales in the heavy-duty market in the U.S. and Canada decreased to 215,700 units from 278,400 units in 2015. The Company’s heavy-duty truck retail market share increased to 28.5% in 2016 from 27.4% in 2015. The medium-duty market was 85,200 units in 2016 compared to 80,200 units in 2015. The Company’s medium-duty market share was 16.2% in 2016 compared to 17.0% in 2015.

 

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The over 16-tonne truck market in Europe in 2016 increased to 302,500 units from 269,100 units in 2015, and DAF’s market share increased to 15.5% in 2016 from 14.6% in 2015. The 6 to 16-tonne market in 2016 increased to 52,900 units from 49,000 units in 2015. DAF market share in the 6 to 16-tonne market in 2016 increased to 10.1% from 9.0% in 2015.

The Company’s worldwide truck net sales and revenues are summarized below:

 

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

   2016     2015     % CHANGE  

Truck net sales and revenues:

      

U.S. and Canada

   $ 7,363.5      $ 9,774.3        (25

Europe

     3,863.0        3,472.1        11   

Mexico, South America, Australia and other

     1,540.8        1,536.1     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 12,767.3      $ 14,782.5        (14
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Truck income before income taxes

   $ 1,125.8      $ 1,440.3        (22
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pre-tax return on revenues

     8.8     9.7  

The Company’s worldwide truck net sales and revenues decreased to $12.77 billion in 2016 from $14.78 billion in 2015, primarily due to lower truck deliveries in the U.S. and Canada, partially offset by higher truck deliveries in Europe. Truck segment income before income taxes and pre-tax return on revenues decreased in 2016, reflecting the lower truck unit deliveries and lower margins.

 

The major factors for the changes in net sales and revenues, cost of sales and revenues and gross margin between 2016 and 2015 for the Truck segment are as follows:

 

    

   

($ in millions)

   NET
SALES AND
REVENUES
    COST OF
SALES  AND
REVENUES
    GROSS
MARGIN
 

2015

   $  14,782.5      $  12,978.3      $  1,804.2   

Increase (decrease)

      

Truck delivery volume

     (1,815.9     (1,581.2     (234.7

Average truck sales prices

     (147.8       (147.8

Average per truck material, labor and other direct costs

       (110.5     110.5   

Factory overhead and other indirect costs

       (35.6     35.6   

Operating leases

     88.7        87.4        1.3   

Currency translation

     (140.2     (81.6     (58.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total decrease

     (2,015.2     (1,721.5     (293.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2016

   $ 12,767.3      $ 11,256.8      $ 1,510.5   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

•     Truck delivery volume reflects lower truck deliveries in the U.S. and Canada, which resulted in lower sales ($2,276.0 million) and cost of sales ($1,954.1 million), partially offset by higher truck deliveries in Europe which resulted in higher sales ($413.3 million) and cost of sales ($320.5 million).

 

•     Average truck sales prices decreased sales by $147.8 million, primarily due to lower price realization in the U.S. and Canada ($108.9 million) and Europe ($26.3 million).

 

•     Average cost per truck decreased cost of sales by $110.5 million, primarily due to lower material costs.

 

•     Factory overhead and other indirect costs decreased $35.6 million, primarily due to lower salaries and related expense ($24.7 million) and lower maintenance costs ($18.3 million), partially offset by higher depreciation expense ($8.3 million).

 

•     Operating lease revenues increased by $88.7 million and cost of sales increased by $87.4 million due to higher average asset balances.

 

•     The currency translation effect on sales and cost of sales reflects a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the British pound and the Canadian dollar.

 

•     Truck gross margins decreased to 11.8% in 2016 from 12.2% in 2015 due to the factors noted above.

    

   

  

   

   

   

  

 

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Truck selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A) for 2016 increased to $202.5 million from $192.6 million in 2015. The increase was primarily due to higher salaries and related expenses. As a percentage of sales, Truck SG&A increased to 1.6% in 2016 compared to 1.3% in 2015, reflecting the lower sales volume.

Parts

The Company’s Parts segment accounted for 18% of revenues in 2016 compared to 16% in 2015.

 

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

   2016     2015     % CHANGE  

Parts net sales and revenues:

      

U.S. and Canada

   $ 1,932.7     $ 1,969.4       (2

Europe

     761.8       773.9       (2

Mexico, South America, Australia and other

     311.2       316.8       (2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 3,005.7     $ 3,060.1       (2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Parts income before income taxes

   $ 543.8     $ 555.6       (2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pre-tax return on revenues

     18.1     18.2  

The Company’s worldwide parts net sales and revenues decreased to $3.01 billion in 2016 from $3.06 billion in 2015, primarily due to lower aftermarket demand in North America and the effect of translating weaker foreign currencies into the U.S. dollar. The decrease in Parts segment income before income taxes and pre-tax return on revenues in 2016 was primarily due to lower sales volume and margins in North America and the effect of translating weaker foreign currencies into the U.S. dollar.

 

The major factors for the changes in net sales, cost of sales and gross margin between 2016 and 2015 for the Parts segment are as follows:

 

 

 

($ in millions)

   NET
SALES
    COST
OF SALES
    GROSS
MARGIN
 

2015

   $  3,060.1     $  2,232.4     $  827.7  

Increase (decrease)

      

Aftermarket parts volume

     (43.0     (28.9     (14.1

Average aftermarket parts sales prices

     22.5         22.5  

Average aftermarket parts direct costs

       (4.1     4.1  

Warehouse and other indirect costs

       8.5       (8.5

Currency translation

     (33.9     (12.2     (21.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total decrease

     (54.4     (36.7     (17.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2016

   $ 3,005.7     $ 2,195.7     $ 810.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

•     Aftermarket parts sales volume decreased by $43.0 million and related cost of sales decreased by $28.9 million, primarily due to lower market demand in North America.

•     Average aftermarket parts sales prices increased sales by $22.5 million reflecting higher price realization in Europe.

•     Average aftermarket parts direct costs decreased $4.1 million due to lower material costs.

•     Warehouse and other indirect costs increased $8.5 million primarily due to start-up costs and higher depreciation expense for the new parts distribution center in Renton, Washington, and higher maintenance expense.

•     The currency translation effect on sales and cost of sales reflects a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the British pound.

•     Parts gross margins decreased to 26.9% in 2016 from 27.0% in 2015 due to the factors noted above.

Parts SG&A expense for 2016 was $191.7 million compared to $194.7 million in 2015. As a percentage of sales, Parts SG&A was 6.4% in 2016 and 2015, reflecting lower sales offset by ongoing cost control.

 

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Financial Services

The Company’s Financial Services segment accounted for 7% of revenues in 2016 compared to 6% in 2015.

 

($ in millions)                     

Year Ended December 31,

   2016      2015      % CHANGE  

New loan and lease volume:

        

U.S. and Canada

   $ 2,474.9       $ 2,758.7         (10

Europe

     1,104.8         1,039.0         6   

Mexico and Australia

     643.7         639.5         1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 4,223.4       $ 4,437.2         (5

New loan and lease volume by product:

        

Loans and finance leases

   $ 3,016.4       $ 3,383.0         (11

Equipment on operating lease

     1,207.0         1,054.2         14   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 4,223.4       $ 4,437.2         (5

New loan and lease unit volume:

        

Loans and finance leases

     31,000         33,300         (7

Equipment on operating lease

     12,000         10,700         12   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     43,000         44,000         (2

Average earning assets:

        

U.S. and Canada

   $ 7,454.0       $ 7,458.3      

Europe

     2,673.2         2,512.9         6   

Mexico and Australia

     1,465.5         1,536.1         (5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 11,592.7       $ 11,507.3         1   

Average earning assets by product:

        

Loans and finance leases

   $ 7,287.2       $ 7,239.9         1   

Dealer wholesale financing

     1,643.4         1,775.2         (7

Equipment on lease and other

     2,662.1         2,492.2         7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 11,592.7       $ 11,507.3         1   

Revenues:

        

U.S. and Canada

   $ 690.3       $ 675.5         2   

Europe

     287.1         278.6         3   

Mexico and Australia

     209.3         218.2         (4
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 1,186.7       $ 1,172.3         1   

Revenue by product:

        

Loans and finance leases

   $ 369.9       $ 384.7         (4

Dealer wholesale financing

     56.3         59.1         (5

Equipment on lease and other

     760.5         728.5         4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 1,186.7       $ 1,172.3         1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 306.5       $ 362.6         (15
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

New loan and lease volume was $4.22 billion in 2016 compared to $4.44 billion in 2015, primarily due to lower truck deliveries in the U.S. and Canada. PFS finance market share on new PACCAR truck sales was 26.7% in 2016 compared to 25.9% in 2015.

PFS revenue increased to $1.19 billion in 2016 from $1.17 billion in 2015. The increase was primarily due to higher average earning asset balances, partially offset by the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar. The effects of currency translation lowered PFS revenues by $27.1 million for 2016.

PFS income before income taxes decreased to $306.5 million in 2016 from $362.6 million in 2015, primarily due to lower results on returned lease assets, higher borrowing rates, the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar and a higher provision for losses on receivables, partially offset by higher average earning asset balances. The effects of currency translation lowered PFS income before income taxes by $9.7 million for 2016.

 

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Table of Contents

The major factors for the changes in interest and fees, interest and other borrowing expenses and finance margin between 2016 and 2015 are outlined below:

 

($ in millions)

  INTEREST
AND FEES
    INTEREST AND
OTHER
BORROWING
EXPENSES
    FINANCE
MARGIN
 

2015

  $  443.8     $  118.0     $  325.8  

(Decrease) increase

     

Average finance receivables

    (2.2       (2.2

Average debt balances

      (.2     .2  

Yields

    (1.0       (1.0

Borrowing rates

      13.7       (13.7

Currency translation

    (14.4     (4.3     (10.1
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total (decrease) increase

    (17.6     9.2       (26.8
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2016

  $ 426.2     $ 127.2     $ 299.0  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

•      Average finance receivables decreased $43.9 million (excluding foreign exchange effects) in 2016 as a result of lower dealer wholesale financing, partially offset by loans and finance leases and retail portfolio volume exceeding collections.

 

•      Average debt balances decreased $9.0 million (excluding foreign exchange effects) in 2016. The lower average debt balances reflect lower funding requirements as the higher average earning asset portfolio (which includes loans, finance leases, wholesale and equipment on operating lease) was funded with retained equity.

 

•      Lower portfolio yields (4.91% in 2016 compared to 4.92% in 2015) decreased interest and fees by $1.0 million. The lower portfolio yields reflect higher lending volumes in Europe at lower relative market rates.

 

•      Higher borrowing rates (1.5% in 2016 compared to 1.4% in 2015) were primarily due to higher debt market rates in North America, partially offset by lower debt market rates in Europe.

 

•      The currency translation effects reflect a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar.

 

The following table summarizes operating lease, rental and other revenues and depreciation and other expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

($ in millions)                  

Year Ended December 31,

        2016     2015  

Operating lease and rental revenues

    $ 720.5     $ 691.6  

Used truck sales and other

      40.0       36.9  
   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating lease, rental and other revenues

    $ 760.5     $ 728.5  
   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Depreciation of operating lease equipment

    $ 509.1     $ 466.6  

Vehicle operating expenses

      92.1       90.7  

Cost of used truck sales and other

      34.0       26.4  
   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Depreciation and other expenses

    $ 635.2     $ 583.7  
   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The major factors for the changes in operating lease, rental and other revenues, depreciation and other expenses and lease margin between 2016 and 2015 are outlined below:

 

 

($ in millions)

  OPERATING LEASE,
RENTAL
AND
OTHER REVENUES
    DEPRECIATION
AND OTHER
EXPENSES
    LEASE
MARGIN
 

2015

  $ 728.5     $
583.7
 
  $ 144.8  

Increase (decrease)

     

Used truck sales

    3.2       5.2       (2.0

Results on returned lease assets

      19.2       (19.2

Average operating lease assets

    29.2       24.0       5.2  

Revenue and cost per asset

    11.8       12.5       (.7

Currency translation and other

    (12.2     (9.4     (2.8
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total increase (decrease)

    32.0       51.5       (19.5
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2016

  $ 760.5     $ 635.2     $          125.3  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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•     A higher volume of used truck sales increased operating lease, rental and other revenues by $3.2 million. Depreciation and other expenses increased by $5.2 million due to higher volume and impairments of used trucks reflecting lower used truck prices.

•     Results on returned lease assets increased depreciation and other expenses by $19.2 million, primarily due to gains on sales of returned lease units in 2015 versus losses in 2016.

•     Average operating lease assets increased $178.3 million in 2016 (excluding foreign exchange effects), which increased revenues by $29.2 million and related depreciation and other expenses by $24.0 million.

•     Revenue per asset increased $11.8 million, primarily due to higher rental rates in Europe, partially offset by lower rental utilization and fuel surcharge revenue. Cost per asset increased $12.5 million, primarily due to higher depreciation expense in Europe.

•     The currency translation effects reflect a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the Mexican peso and British pound.

The following table summarizes the provision for losses on receivables and net charge-offs:

 

($ in millions)

   2016     2015  
   PROVISION FOR
LOSSES ON
RECEIVABLES
     NET
CHARGE-OFFS
    PROVISION FOR
LOSSES ON
RECEIVABLES
     NET
CHARGE-OFFS
 

U.S. and Canada

   $ 14.0      $ 14.7     $ 7.7      $ 4.6  

Europe

     .4        1.2       1.9        3.9  

Mexico and Australia

     4.0        3.3       2.8        4.6  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 18.4      $                           19.2     $ 12.4      $ 13.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

The provision for losses on receivables was $18.4 million in 2016, an increase of $6.0 million compared to 2015, reflecting higher losses in the oil and gas sector in the U.S. and Canada, partially offset by improved portfolio performance in Europe.

 

The Company modifies loans and finance leases as a normal part of its Financial Services operations. The Company may modify loans and finance leases for commercial reasons or for credit reasons. Modifications for commercial reasons are changes to contract terms for customers that are not considered to be in financial difficulty. Insignificant delays are modifications extending terms up to three months for customers experiencing some short-term financial stress, but not considered to be in financial difficulty. Modifications for credit reasons are changes to contract terms for customers considered to be in financial difficulty. The Company’s modifications typically result in granting more time to pay the contractual amounts owed and charging a fee and interest for the term of the modification. When considering whether to modify customer accounts for credit reasons, the Company evaluates the creditworthiness of the customers and modifies those accounts that the Company considers likely to perform under the modified terms. When the Company modifies loans and finance leases for credit reasons and grants a concession, the modifications are classified as troubled debt restructurings (TDR).

 

The post-modification balance of accounts modified during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 are summarized below:

 

 

 

 

($ in millions)

   2016     2015  
   RECORDED
INVESTMENT
     % OF TOTAL
PORTFOLIO*
    RECORDED
INVESTMENT
     % OF TOTAL
PORTFOLIO*
 

Commercial

   $ 236.2        3.2   $ 166.8        2.3

Insignificant delay

     90.3        1.3     70.0        1.0

Credit - no concession

     51.9        .7     36.6        .5

Credit - TDR

     31.6        .4     44.4        .5
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 410.0        5.6   $ 317.8        4.3
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

* Recorded investment immediately after modification as a percentage of the year-end retail portfolio balance.

In 2016, total modification activity increased compared to 2015, primarily reflecting higher volume of refinancings for commercial reasons, including a contract modification for one large customer in the U.S. The increase in modifications for insignificant delay reflects more fleet customers requesting payment relief for up to three months. Credit – no concession modifications increased primarily due to extensions granted to one customer in Australia.

 

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Table of Contents

The following table summarizes the Company’s 30+ days past due accounts:

 

At December 31,

             2016     2015  

Percentage of retail loan and lease accounts 30+ days past due:

    

  U.S. and Canada

     .3     .3

  Europe

     .5     .7

  Mexico and Australia

     1.8     1.3
        

 

 

   

 

 

 

Worldwide

     .5     .5
        

 

 

   

 

 

 

Accounts 30+ days past due were .5% at December 31, 2016 and 2015, reflecting lower past dues in Europe offset by higher past dues in Mexico. The Company continues to focus on maintaining low past due balances.

 

   

When the Company modifies a 30+ days past due account, the customer is then generally considered current under the revised contractual terms. The Company modified $2.6 million of accounts worldwide during the fourth quarter of 2016 and the fourth quarter of 2015 which were 30+ days past due and became current at the time of modification. Had these accounts not been modified and continued to not make payments, the pro forma percentage of retail loan and lease accounts 30+ days past due would have been as follows:

 

      

At December 31,

             2016     2015  

Pro forma percentage of retail loan and lease accounts 30+ days past due:

    

  U.S. and Canada

     .3     .3

  Europe

     .5     .7

  Mexico and Australia

         2.0         1.6
        

 

 

   

 

 

 

Worldwide

     .6     .6
        

 

 

   

 

 

 

Modifications of accounts in prior quarters that were more than 30 days past due at the time of modification are included in past dues if they were not performing under the modified terms at December 31, 2016 and 2015. The effect on the allowance for credit losses from such modifications was not significant at December 31, 2016 and 2015.

The Company’s 2016 and 2015 annualized pre-tax return on average earning assets for Financial Services was 2.6% and 3.2%, respectively.

Other

Other includes the winch business as well as sales, income and expenses not attributable to a reportable segment, including the EC charge and a portion of corporate expense. Other sales represent less than 1% of consolidated net sales and revenues for 2016 and 2015. Other SG&A was $46.6 million in 2016 and $58.7 million in 2015. The decrease in SG&A was primarily due to lower salaries and related expenses and lower professional fees. Other income (loss) before tax was a loss of $873.3 million in 2016 compared to a loss of $43.2 million in 2015. The higher loss in 2016 was primarily due to the EC charge and lower pre-tax results from the winch business, which has been affected by lower oilfield related sales, partially offset by lower SG&A expense.

Investment income increased to $27.6 million in 2016 from $21.8 million in 2015, primarily due to higher yields on investments due to higher market interest rates and higher realized gains.

Income Taxes

In 2016, the effective tax rate increased to 53.8% from 31.4% in 2015, and substantially all of the difference in tax rates was due to the non-deductible expense of $833.0 million for the EC charge in 2016. Based on existing tax laws, with the exception of 2016, the Company believes that its historical effective tax rates will be indicative of the Company’s future tax rates.

 

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Table of Contents
($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

         2016     2015  

Domestic income before taxes

     $ 1,190.7     $ 1,581.6  

Foreign (loss) income before taxes

       (60.3     755.5  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total income before taxes

     $ 1,130.4     $ 2,337.1  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Domestic pre-tax return on revenues

       12.8     13.7

Foreign pre-tax return on revenues

       (.8 )%      9.9
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total pre-tax return on revenues

       6.6     12.2
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

In 2016, the decline in income before income taxes and return on revenues for domestic operations was primarily due to lower revenues from truck operations. In 2016, the EC charge of $833.0 million resulted in a loss before income taxes and a negative return on revenues for foreign operations. Excluding the EC charge, foreign operations income before income taxes and return on revenues increased primarily due to higher revenues from European truck operations as a result of improved truck volumes and margins in Europe.

 

2015 Compared to 2014:

 

Truck

 

The Company’s Truck segment accounted for 77% of total revenues for both 2015 and 2014.

 

The Company’s new truck deliveries are summarized below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2015     2014     % CHANGE  

U.S. and Canada

     91,300       84,800       8  

Europe

     47,400       39,500       20  

Mexico, South America, Australia and other

     16,000       18,600       (14
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total units

     154,700       142,900       8  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

In 2015, industry retail sales in the heavy-duty truck market in the U.S. and Canada increased to 278,400 units from 249,400 units in 2014. The Company’s heavy-duty truck retail market share was 27.4% compared to 27.9% in 2014. The medium-duty market was 80,200 units in 2015 compared to 70,500 units in 2014. The Company’s medium-duty market share was a record 17.0% in 2015 compared to 16.5% in 2014.

 

The over 16-tonne truck market in Western and Central Europe in 2015 was 269,100 units, a 19% increase from 226,300 units in 2014. DAF market share was 14.6% in 2015, an increase from 13.8% in 2014. The 6 to 16-tonne market in 2015 was 49,000 units compared to 46,500 units in 2014. DAF market share was 9.0% in 2015, an increase from 8.9% in 2014.

 

The Company’s worldwide truck net sales and revenue are summarized below:

 

 

 

 

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

   2015     2014     % CHANGE  

Truck net sales and revenues:

      

U.S. and Canada

   $ 9,774.3     $ 8,974.5       9  

Europe

     3,472.1       3,657.6       (5

Mexico, South America, Australia and other

     1,536.1       1,961.9       (22
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 14,782.5     $ 14,594.0       1  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Truck income before income taxes

   $ 1,440.3     $ 1,160.1       24  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pre-tax return on revenues

     9.7     7.9  

The Company’s worldwide truck net sales and revenues increased to $14.78 billion from $14.59 billion in 2014, primarily due to higher truck deliveries in the U.S. and Europe. The effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro, reduced 2015 worldwide truck net sales and revenues by $940.0 million.

 

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Table of Contents

Truck segment income before income taxes and pre-tax return on revenues reflect higher truck unit deliveries and improved gross margins in the U.S. and Europe. The effects on income before income taxes of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro, were largely offset by lower costs of North American MX engine components imported from Europe.

 

The major factors for the changes in net sales and revenues, cost of sales and revenues and gross margin between 2015 and 2014 for the Truck segment are as follows:

 

    

   

($ in millions)

   NET
SALES AND
REVENUES
    COST OF
SALES AND
REVENUES
    GROSS
MARGIN
 

2014

   $ 14,594.0      $ 13,105.5      $ 1,488.5   

Increase (decrease)

      

Truck delivery volume

     1,131.1        884.1        247.0   

Average truck sales prices

     78.2          78.2   

Average per truck material, labor and other direct costs

       (107.7     107.7   

Factory overhead and other indirect costs

       29.6        (29.6

Operating leases

     (80.8     (75.6     (5.2

Currency translation

     (940.0     (857.6     (82.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total increase (decrease)

     188.5        (127.2     315.7   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2015

   $ 14,782.5      $ 12,978.3      $ 1,804.2   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

•     Truck delivery volume reflects higher truck deliveries in the U.S. and Canada and Europe which resulted in higher sales ($1,413.2 million) and cost of sales ($1,113.6 million), partially offset by lower truck deliveries in Mexico and Australia which resulted in lower sales ($288.2 million) and cost of sales ($233.1 million).

 

•     Average truck sales prices increased sales by $78.2 million, primarily due to improved price realization in Europe.

 

•     Average cost per truck decreased cost of sales by $107.7 million, primarily due to lower material costs, reflecting lower commodity prices and lower costs of North American MX engine components imported from Europe which benefited from the decline in the value of the euro.

 

•     Factory overhead and other indirect costs increased $29.6 million, primarily due to higher supplies and maintenance costs ($31.1 million).

 

•     Operating lease revenues decreased by $80.8 million and cost of sales decreased by $75.6 million due to lower average asset balances.

 

•     The currency translation effect on sales and cost of sales reflects a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro.

 

•     Truck gross margins in 2015 of 12.2% increased from 10.2% in 2014 due to the factors noted above.

    

  

    

   

   

   

  

Truck SG&A for 2015 decreased to $192.6 million from $198.2 million in 2014. The decrease was primarily due to currency translation effect ($21.8 million), mostly related to a decline in the value of the euro relative to the U.S. dollar, partially offset by higher promotion and marketing costs ($11.6 million) and higher salaries and related expenses ($7.6 million). As a percentage of sales, SG&A decreased to 1.3% in 2015 compared to 1.4% in 2014, reflecting higher sales volume.

 

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Table of Contents

Parts

The Company’s Parts segment accounted for 16% of total revenues for both 2015 and 2014.

 

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

   2015     2014     % CHANGE  

Parts net sales and revenues:

      

U.S. and Canada

   $ 1,969.4      $ 1,842.9        7   

Europe

     773.9        867.2        (11

Mexico, South America, Australia and other

     316.8        367.4        (14
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 3,060.1      $ 3,077.5        (1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Parts income before income taxes

   $ 555.6      $ 496.7        12   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pre-tax return on revenues

     18.2     16.1  

The Company’s worldwide parts net sales and revenues were $3.06 billion in 2015 compared to $3.08 billion in 2014. Higher aftermarket demand in North America and Europe was offset by a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro, which reduced 2015 worldwide parts net sales and revenues by $193.3 million.

 

The increase in Parts segment income before income taxes and pre-tax return on revenues in 2015 was primarily due to higher sales and gross margins. This was partially offset by a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro, which reduced 2015 Parts segment income before income taxes by $34.1 million.

 

The major factors for the changes in net sales, cost of sales and gross margin between 2015 and 2014 for the Parts segment are as follows:

    

    

   

($ in millions)

   NET
SALES
    COST
OF SALES
    GROSS
MARGIN
 

2014

   $ 3,077.5      $ 2,281.7      $ 795.8   

Increase (decrease)

      

Aftermarket parts volume

     123.5        69.1        54.4   

Average aftermarket parts sales prices

     52.4          52.4   

Average aftermarket parts direct costs

       2.9        (2.9

Warehouse and other indirect costs

       7.3        (7.3

Currency translation

     (193.3     (128.6     (64.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total (decrease) increase

     (17.4     (49.3     31.9   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2015

   $ 3,060.1      $ 2,232.4      $ 827.7   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

Higher market demand, primarily in the U.S. and Canada and Europe, resulted in increased aftermarket parts sales volume of $123.5 million and related cost of sales of $69.1 million.

 

 

Average aftermarket parts sales prices increased sales by $52.4 million reflecting improved price realization in the U.S. and Canada ($31.1 million) and Europe ($21.3 million).

 

 

Average aftermarket parts direct costs increased $2.9 million due to higher material costs.

 

 

Warehouse and other indirect costs increased $7.3 million, primarily due to additional costs to support higher sales volume.

 

 

The currency translation effect on sales and cost of sales reflects a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro.

 

 

Parts gross margins in 2015 of 27.0% increased from 25.9% in 2014 due to the factors noted above.

Parts SG&A expense for 2015 decreased to $194.7 million from $207.5 million in 2014. The decrease was primarily due to the effects of currency translation ($21.7 million), mostly related to a decline in the value of the euro relative to the U.S. dollar, partially offset by higher salaries and related expenses ($10.3 million). As a percentage of sales, Parts SG&A decreased to 6.4% in 2015 from 6.7% in 2014.

 

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Table of Contents

Financial Services

The Company’s Financial Services segment accounted for 6% of total revenues for both 2015 and 2014.

 

($ in millions)                     

Year Ended December 31,

   2015      2014      % CHANGE  

New loan and lease volume:

        

U.S. and Canada

   $ 2,758.7       $ 2,798.3         (1

Europe

     1,039.0         988.1         5   

Mexico and Australia

     639.5         668.7         (4
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 4,437.2       $ 4,455.1      

New loan and lease volume by product:

        

Loans and finance leases

   $ 3,383.0       $ 3,516.7         (4

Equipment on operating lease

     1,054.2         938.4         12   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 4,437.2       $ 4,455.1      

New loan and lease unit volume:

        

Loans and finance leases

     33,300         32,920         1   

Equipment on operating lease

     10,700         8,950         20   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     44,000         41,870         5   

Average earning assets:

        

U.S. and Canada

   $ 7,458.3       $ 6,779.0         10   

Europe

     2,512.9         2,683.8         (6

Mexico and Australia

     1,536.1         1,721.4         (11
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 11,507.3       $ 11,184.2         3   

Average earning assets by product:

        

Loans and finance leases

   $ 7,239.9       $ 7,269.3      

Dealer wholesale financing

     1,775.2         1,462.0         21   

Equipment on lease and other

     2,492.2         2,452.9         2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 11,507.3       $ 11,184.2         3   

Revenues:

        

U.S. and Canada

   $ 675.5       $ 641.2         5   

Europe

     278.6         317.8         (12

Mexico and Australia

     218.2         245.2         (11
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 1,172.3       $ 1,204.2         (3

Revenue by product:

        

Loans and finance leases

   $ 384.7       $ 410.3         (6

Dealer wholesale financing

     59.1         52.3         13   

Equipment on lease and other

     728.5         741.6         (2
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 1,172.3       $ 1,204.2         (3
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 362.6       $ 370.4         (2
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

New loan and lease volume was $4.44 billion in 2015 compared to $4.46 billion in 2014. PFS finance market share on new PACCAR truck sales was 25.9% in 2015 compared to 27.7% in 2014 due to increased competition.

PFS revenue decreased to $1.17 billion in 2015 from $1.20 billion in 2014. The decrease was primarily due to the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar and lower yields, partially offset by revenues on higher average earning asset balances. The effects of currency translation lowered PFS revenues by $79.3 million for 2015. PFS income before income taxes decreased to $362.6 million from $370.4 million in 2014, primarily due to the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies into the U.S. dollar and lower yields, partially offset by higher average earning asset balances and lower borrowing rates. The effects of currency translation lowered PFS income before income taxes by $21.9 million for 2015.

 

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Table of Contents

The major factors for the changes in interest and fees, interest and other borrowing expenses and finance margin between 2015 and 2014 are outlined below:

 

($ in millions)

   INTEREST
AND FEES
    INTEREST AND
OTHER
BORROWING
EXPENSES
    FINANCE
MARGIN
 

2014

   $ 462.6      $ 133.7      $ 328.9   

Increase (decrease)

      

Average finance receivables

     42.8          42.8   

Average debt balances

       10.1        (10.1

Yields

     (28.2       (28.2

Borrowing rates

       (15.4     15.4   

Currency translation

     (33.4     (10.4     (23.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total decrease

     (18.8     (15.7     (3.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2015

   $ 443.8      $ 118.0      $ 325.8   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

•      Average finance receivables increased $883.8 million (excluding foreign exchange effects) in 2015 as a result of retail portfolio new business volume exceeding collections.

 

•      Average debt balances increased $713.8 million (excluding foreign exchange effects) in 2015. The higher average debt balances reflect funding for a higher average earning asset portfolio, including loans, finance leases and equipment on operating leases.

 

•      Lower market rates resulted in lower portfolio yields (5.0% in 2015 compared to 5.3% in 2014) and lower borrowing rates (1.4% in 2015 compared to 1.6% in 2014).

 

•      The currency translation effects reflect a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar.

 

The following table summarizes operating lease, rental and other revenues and depreciation and other expenses:

 

       

       

       

      

  

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

         2015     2014  

Operating lease and rental revenues

     $ 691.6      $ 712.2   

Used truck sales and other

       36.9        29.4   
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating lease, rental and other revenues

     $ 728.5      $ 741.6   
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Depreciation of operating lease equipment

     $ 466.6      $ 472.3   

Vehicle operating expenses

       90.7        100.6   

Cost of used truck sales and other

       26.4        15.6   
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Depreciation and other expenses

     $ 583.7      $ 588.5   
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

The major factors for the changes in operating lease, rental and other revenues, depreciation and other expenses and lease margin between 2015 and 2014 are outlined below:

 

   

($ in millions)

   OPERATING LEASE,
RENTAL AND
OTHER REVENUES
    DEPRECIATION
AND OTHER
EXPENSES
    LEASE
MARGIN
 

2014

   $ 741.6      $ 588.5      $ 153.1   

Increase (decrease)

      

Used truck sales

     9.5        11.9        (2.4

Results on returned lease assets

       7.7        (7.7

Average operating lease assets

     17.3        13.6        3.7   

Revenue and cost per asset

     8.1        4.6        3.5   

Currency translation and other

     (48.0     (42.6     (5.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total decrease

     (13.1     (4.8     (8.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2015

   $ 728.5      $ 583.7      $     144.8   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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•     A higher volume of used truck sales increased operating lease, rental and other revenues by $9.5 million and increased depreciation and other expenses by $11.9 million.

•     Results on returned lease assets increased depreciation and other expenses by $7.7 million, primarily due to lower gains on sales of returned lease units.

•     Average operating lease assets increased $188.2 million in 2015 (excluding foreign exchange effects), which increased revenues by $17.3 million and related depreciation and other expenses by $13.6 million.

•     Revenue per asset increased $8.1 million primarily due to higher fee income and higher rental rates, partially offset by lower fuel revenue. Cost per asset increased $4.6 million, primarily due to higher depreciation expense, partially offset by lower fuel expense.

•     The currency translation effects reflect a decline in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro.

The following table summarizes the provision for losses on receivables and net charge-offs:

 

($ in millions)

   2015     2014  
      PROVISION FOR
LOSSES ON
RECEIVABLES
    NET
CHARGE-OFFS
    PROVISION FOR
LOSSES ON
RECEIVABLES
    NET
CHARGE-OFFS
 

U.S. and Canada

   $ 7.7     $ 4.6     $ 6.1     $ 5.1  

Europe

     1.9       3.9       5.4       6.5  

Mexico and Australia

     2.8       4.6       3.9       4.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 12.4     $         13.1     $ 15.4     $ 16.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

The provision for losses on receivables was $12.4 million in 2015, a decrease of $3.0 million compared to 2014, mainly due to improved portfolio performance in Europe and the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar, partially offset by higher portfolio balances in Europe and the U.S. and Canada.

 

The Company modifies loans and finance leases as a normal part of its Financial Services operations. The Company may modify loans and finance leases for commercial reasons or for credit reasons. Modifications for commercial reasons are changes to contract terms for customers that are not considered to be in financial difficulty. Insignificant delays are modifications extending terms up to three months for customers experiencing some short-term financial stress, but not considered to be in financial difficulty. Modifications for credit reasons are changes to contract terms for customers considered to be in financial difficulty. The Company’s modifications typically result in granting more time to pay the contractual amounts owed and charging a fee and interest for the term of the modification. When considering whether to modify customer accounts for credit reasons, the Company evaluates the creditworthiness of the customers and modifies those accounts that the Company considers likely to perform under the modified terms. When the Company modifies loans and finance leases for credit reasons and grants a concession, the modifications are classified as troubled debt restructurings (TDR).

 

The post-modification balance of accounts modified during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 are summarized below:

 

 

 

 

($ in millions)

   2015     2014  
   RECORDED
INVESTMENT
   

% OF TOTAL
  PORTFOLIO*

    RECORDED
INVESTMENT
    % OF TOTAL
PORTFOLIO*
 

Commercial

   $ 166.8       2.3   $ 181.6       2.5

Insignificant delay

     70.0       1.0     64.1       .9

Credit - no concession

     36.6       .5     31.5       .4

Credit - TDR

     44.4                   .5     26.4       .4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 317.8                 4.3   $ 303.6       4.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

* Recorded investment immediately after modification as a percentage of the year-end retail portfolio balance.

In 2015, total modification activity increased compared to 2014, primarily due to higher modifications for credit - TDRs, partially offset by the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar and lower commercial modifications. TDR modifications increased primarily due to contract modifications in Mexico. The decrease in commercial modifications reflects lower volumes of refinancing.

 

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Table of Contents

The following table summarizes the Company’s 30+ days past due accounts:

 

At December 31,

               2015                 2014  

Percentage of retail loan and lease accounts 30+ days past due:

    

U.S. and Canada

     .3     .1

Europe

     .7     1.1

Mexico and Australia

     1.3     2.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Worldwide

     .5     .5
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Accounts 30+ days past due were .5% at December 31, 2015 and 2014, as higher past due accounts in the U.S. and Canada were offset by lower past dues in all other markets. The Company continues to focus on maintaining low past due balances.

 

When the Company modifies a 30+ days past due account, the customer is then generally considered current under the revised contractual terms. The Company modified $2.6 million of accounts worldwide during the fourth quarter of 2015 and $4.0 million during the fourth quarter of 2014 that were 30+ days past due and became current at the time of modification. Had these accounts not been modified and continued to not make payments, the pro forma percentage of retail loan and lease accounts 30+ days past due would have been as follows:

 

   

      

At December 31,

   2015     2014  

Pro forma percentage of retail loan and lease accounts 30+ days past due:

    

U.S. and Canada

     .3     .1

Europe

     .7     1.2

Mexico and Australia

     1.6     2.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Worldwide

     .6     .6

Modifications of accounts in prior quarters that were more than 30 days past due at the time of modification are included in past dues if they were not performing under the modified terms at December 31, 2015 and 2014. The effect on the allowance for credit losses from such modifications was not significant at December 31, 2015 and 2014.

The Company’s 2015 and 2014 pre-tax return on average earning assets for Financial Services was 3.2% and 3.3%, respectively.

Other

Other includes the winch business as well as sales, income and expenses not attributable to a reportable segment, including a portion of corporate expense. Other sales represents less than 1% of consolidated net sales and revenues for 2015 and 2014. Other SG&A was $58.7 million in 2015 and $59.5 million in 2014. The decrease in SG&A was primarily due to lower salaries and related expenses. Other income (loss) before tax was a loss of $43.2 million in 2015 compared to a loss of $31.9 million in 2014. The higher loss in 2015 was primarily due to lower income before tax from the winch business which has been affected by lower oilfield related business.

Investment income was $21.8 million in 2015 compared to $22.3 million in 2014. The lower investment income in 2015 was primarily due to the effects of translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar, partially offset by higher realized gains and average portfolio balances.

 

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Table of Contents

Income Taxes

The 2015 effective income tax rate of 31.4% decreased from 32.7% in 2014. The decrease in the effective tax rate was primarily due to an increase in research tax credits in 2015.

 

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

         2015     2014  

Domestic income before taxes

     $ 1,581.6      $ 1,267.3   

Foreign income before taxes

       755.5        750.3   
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total income before taxes

     $ 2,337.1      $ 2,017.6   
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Domestic pre-tax return on revenues

       13.7     12.4

Foreign pre-tax return on revenues

       9.9     8.6
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total pre-tax return on revenues

       12.2     10.6
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

The improvement in income before income taxes and return on revenues for domestic operations was primarily due to higher revenues from trucks and parts operations and higher truck and parts margins. The increase in foreign income before income taxes was primarily due to higher revenues from trucks and parts operations and higher truck and parts margins, partially offset by translating weaker foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar, primarily the euro. The improvement in return on revenues for foreign operations was primarily due to higher revenues and margins from European truck and parts operations.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES:

 

      

  

($ in millions)                   

At December 31,

   2016     2015     2014  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 1,915.7      $ 2,016.4      $ 1,737.6   

Marketable debt securities

     1,140.9        1,448.1        1,272.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 3,056.6      $ 3,464.5      $ 3,009.6   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The Company’s total cash and marketable debt securities at December 31, 2016 decreased $407.9 million from the balances at December 31, 2015, mainly due to a decrease in marketable debt securities.

 

The change in cash and cash equivalents is summarized below:

 

   

  

($ in millions)                   

Year Ended December 31,

   2016     2015     2014  

Operating activities:

      

Net income

   $ 521.7      $ 1,604.0      $ 1,358.8   

Net income items not affecting cash

     1,072.7        910.9        875.5   

Pension contributions

     (185.7     (62.9     (81.1

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net

     892.1        104.0        (29.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

     2,300.8        2,556.0        2,123.6   

Net cash used in investing activities

     (1,564.3     (1,974.9     (1,531.9

Net cash used in financing activities

     (823.5     (196.5     (520.5

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

     (13.7     (105.8     (83.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

     (100.7     278.8        (12.5

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the year

     2,016.4        1,737.6        1,750.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of the year

   $ 1,915.7      $ 2,016.4      $ 1,737.6   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

2016 Compared to 2015:

Operating activities: Cash provided by operations decreased by $255.2 million to $2.30 billion in 2016. Lower operating cash flows reflect lower net income of $521.7 million in 2016, which includes payment of the $833.0 million EC charge, and higher pension contributions of $122.8 million. This was partially offset by $675.0 million from Financial Services segment wholesale receivables, whereby cash receipts exceeded originations in 2016 ($401.6 million) compared to originations exceeding cash receipts in 2015 ($273.4 million). In addition, there was a lower cash outflow for payment of income taxes of $281.4 million.

 

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Table of Contents

Investing activities: Cash used in investing activities decreased by $410.6 million to $1.56 billion in 2016 from $1.97 billion in 2015. Lower net cash used in investing activities reflects $567.2 million from marketable debt securities as there was $272.9 million in net proceeds from sales of marketable debt securities in 2016 versus $294.3 million in net purchases of marketable debt securities in 2015 and higher net originations of retail loans and direct financing leases of $100.7 million. This was partially offset by higher cash used in the acquisitions of equipment for operating leases of $151.2 million and higher payments for property, plant and equipment of $88.5 million.

Financing activities: Cash used in financing activities was $823.5 million in 2016 compared to cash used in financing activities of $196.5 million in 2015. The Company paid $829.3 million in dividends in 2016 compared to $680.5 million in 2015; the increase of $148.8 million was primarily due to an increase for the 2015 special dividend paid in January 2016. In 2016, the Company issued $1.99 billion of term debt, repaid term debt of $1.63 billion and reduced its outstanding commercial paper and short-term bank loans by $322.8 million. In 2015, the Company issued $1.99 billion of term debt, increased its outstanding commercial paper and short-term bank loans by $250.7 million and repaid term debt of $1.58 billion. This resulted in cash provided by borrowing activities of $46.9 million in 2016, $616.9 million lower than the cash provided by borrowing activities of $663.8 million in 2015. The Company repurchased 1.4 million shares of common stock for $70.5 million in 2016 compared to 3.8 million shares for $201.6 million in 2015, a decline of $131.1 million.

2015 Compared to 2014:

Operating activities: Cash provided by operations increased $432.4 million to $2.56 billion in 2015 compared to $2.12 billion in 2014. Higher operating cash flow reflects $245.2 million of higher net income and $253.8 million from inventory as there was $64.3 million in net inventory reductions in 2015 vs. $189.5 million in net inventory purchases in 2014. In addition, higher cash inflows reflects $176.6 million from accounts receivables as collections exceeded sales in 2015 ($105.3 million) compared to sales exceeding collections in 2014 ($71.3 million). A lower increase in Financial Services sales-type finance leases and dealer direct loans on new trucks also contributed $126.5 million. These cash inflows were partially offset by cash outflows of $414.9 million from accounts payable and accrued expenses, where payments from goods and services exceeded purchases in 2015 ($162.6 million) compared to purchases exceeding payments in 2014 ($252.3 million).

Investing activities: Cash used in investing activities of $1.97 billion in 2015 increased $443.0 million from the $1.53 billion used in 2014, primarily due to higher cash used in the acquisitions of equipment for operating leases of $199.4 million, $169.7 million higher net purchases of marketable securities and $116.0 million in higher net originations of retail loans and direct financing leases in 2015. These outflows were partially offset by higher proceeds from asset disposals of $53.3 million.

Financing activities: Cash used in financing activities was $196.5 million in 2015 compared to $520.5 million in 2014. The Company paid $680.5 million of dividends in 2015 compared to $623.8 million paid in 2014, an increase of $56.7 million. In addition, the Company repurchased 3.8 million shares of common stock for $201.6 million in 2015 compared to .7 million shares for $42.7 million in 2014. In 2015, the Company issued $1.99 billion of term debt and $250.7 million of commercial paper and short-term bank loans and repaid maturing term debt of $1.58 billion. In 2014, the Company issued $1.65 billion of term debt and $349.1 million of commercial paper and short-term bank loans and repaid maturing term debt of $1.88 billion. This resulted in cash provided by borrowing activities of $663.8 million in 2015, $546.9 million higher than cash provided by borrowing activities of $116.9 million in 2014.

Credit Lines and Other:

The Company has line of credit arrangements of $3.43 billion, of which $3.22 billion were unused at December 31, 2016. Included in these arrangements are $3.0 billion of syndicated bank facilities, of which $1.0 billion expires in June 2017, $1.0 billion expires in June 2020 and $1.0 billion expires in June 2021. The Company intends to replace these credit facilities on or before expiration with facilities of similar amounts and duration. These credit facilities are maintained primarily to provide backup liquidity for commercial paper borrowings and maturing medium-term notes. There were no borrowings under the syndicated bank facilities for the year ended December 31, 2016.

On September 23, 2015, PACCAR’s Board of Directors approved the repurchase of up to $300.0 million of the Company’s common stock, and as of December 31, 2016, $206.7 million of shares have been repurchased pursuant to the 2015 authorization.

 

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Table of Contents

At December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had cash and cash equivalents and marketable debt securities of $1.33 billion and $1.82 billion, respectively, which are considered indefinitely reinvested in foreign subsidiaries. The Company periodically repatriates foreign earnings that are not indefinitely reinvested. Dividends paid by foreign subsidiaries to the U.S. parent were $.33 billion, $.24 billion and $.24 billion in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The Company believes that its U.S. cash and cash equivalents and marketable debt securities, future operating cash flow and access to the capital markets, along with periodic repatriation of foreign earnings, will be sufficient to meet U.S. liquidity requirements.

Truck, Parts and Other

The Company provides funding for working capital, capital expenditures, R&D, dividends, stock repurchases and other business initiatives and commitments primarily from cash provided by operations. Management expects this method of funding to continue in the future. On July 19, 2016, the EC concluded its investigation of all major European truck manufacturers and reached a settlement with DAF under which the EC imposed a fine on DAF of €752.7 million ($833.0 million) for infringement of European Union competition rules. The fine is not tax deductible. In August 2016, DAF paid the fine.

Investments for property, plant and equipment in 2016 increased to $394.6 million from $306.5 million in 2015, reflecting additional investments for the construction of a new DAF cab paint facility in Europe, the Peterbilt plant expansion in Denton, Texas and a new PDC in Renton, Washington. Over the past decade, the Company’s combined investments in worldwide capital projects and R&D totaled $6.09 billion, and have significantly increased the operating capacity and efficiency of its facilities and enhanced the quality and operating efficiency of the Company’s premium products.

In 2017, capital investments are expected to be $375 to $425 million, and R&D is expected to be $250 to $280 million. The Company is investing for future growth in PACCAR’s new truck models integrated powertrain, advanced driver assistance and truck connectivity technologies, and additional capacity and operating efficiency of the Company’s manufacturing and parts distribution facilities.

The Company conducts business in certain countries which have been experiencing or may experience significant financial stress, fiscal or political strain and are subject to the corresponding potential for default. The Company routinely monitors its financial exposure to global financial conditions, global counterparties and operating environments. As of December 31, 2016, the Company’s exposures in such countries were insignificant.

Financial Services

The Company funds its financial services activities primarily from collections on existing finance receivables and borrowings in the capital markets. The primary sources of borrowings in the capital markets are commercial paper and medium-term notes issued in the public markets and, to a lesser extent, bank loans. An additional source of funds is loans from other PACCAR companies.

The Company issues commercial paper for a portion of its funding in its Financial Services segment. Some of this commercial paper is converted to fixed interest rate debt through the use of interest-rate swaps, which are used to manage interest-rate risk.

In November 2015, the Company’s U.S. finance subsidiary, PACCAR Financial Corp. (PFC), filed a shelf registration under the Securities Act of 1933. The total amount of medium-term notes outstanding for PFC as of December 31, 2016 was $4.75 billion. The registration expires in November 2018 and does not limit the principal amount of debt securities that may be issued during that period.

As of December 31, 2016, the Company’s European finance subsidiary, PACCAR Financial Europe, had €1,313.4 million available for issuance under a €2.50 billion medium-term note program listed on the Professional Securities Market of the London Stock Exchange. This program replaced an expiring program in the second quarter of 2016 and is renewable annually through the filing of new listing particulars.

In April 2016, PACCAR Financial Mexico registered a 10.00 billion peso medium-term note and commercial paper program with the Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores. The registration expires in April 2021 and limits the amount of commercial paper (up to one year) to 5.00 billion pesos. At December 31, 2016, 8.88 billion pesos were available for issuance.

 

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In the event of a future significant disruption in the financial markets, the Company may not be able to issue replacement commercial paper. As a result, the Company is exposed to liquidity risk from the shorter maturity of short-term borrowings paid to lenders compared to the longer timing of receivable collections from customers. The Company believes its cash balances and investments, collections on existing finance receivables, syndicated bank lines and current investment-grade credit ratings of A+/A1 will continue to provide it with sufficient resources and access to capital markets at competitive interest rates and therefore contribute to the Company maintaining its liquidity and financial stability. A decrease in these credit ratings could negatively impact the Company’s ability to access capital markets at competitive interest rates and the Company’s ability to maintain liquidity and financial stability. PACCAR believes its Financial Services companies will be able to continue funding receivables, servicing debt and paying dividends through internally generated funds, access to public and private debt markets and lines of credit.

Commitments

The following summarizes the Company’s contractual cash commitments at December 31, 2016:

 

      MATURITY         

($ in millions)

   WITHIN 1 YEAR      1-3 YEARS      3-5 YEARS      MORE THAN
5 YEARS
     TOTAL  

Borrowings*

   $ 4,143.8      $ 3,463.7      $ 887.0         $ 8,494.5  

Purchase obligations

     202.6        132.4        .4      $ .2        335.6  

Interest on debt**

     84.1        95.0        21.6           200.7  

Operating leases

     19.3        19.3        6.9        2.6        48.1  

Other obligations

     44.2        9.1        4.6        .5        58.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 4,494.0      $ 3,719.5      $ 920.5      $ 3.3      $ 9,137.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

*       Commercial paper included in borrowings is at par value.

**     Interest on floating-rate debt is based on the applicable market rates at December 31, 2016.

 

Total cash commitments for borrowings and interest on term debt are $8.70 billion and were related to the Financial Services segment. As described in Note I of the consolidated financial statements, borrowings consist primarily of term notes and commercial paper issued by the Financial Services segment. The Company expects to fund its maturing Financial Services debt obligations principally from funds provided by collections from customers on loans and lease contracts, as well as from the proceeds of commercial paper and medium-term note borrowings. Purchase obligations are the Company’s contractual commitments to acquire future production inventory and capital equipment. Other obligations include deferred cash compensation.

 

The Company’s other commitments include the following at December 31, 2016:

 

        

      

 

 

      COMMITMENT EXPIRATION         

($ in millions)

   WITHIN 1 YEAR      1-3 YEARS      3-5 YEARS      MORE THAN
5 YEARS
     TOTAL  

Loan and lease commitments

   $ 603.3               $ 603.3  

Residual value guarantees

     259.7      $ 343.9      $ 88.2      $ 7.4        699.2  

Letters of credit

     14.5        .3        .2        2.5        17.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 877.5      $ 344.2      $ 88.4      $ 9.9      $ 1,320.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loan and lease commitments are for funding new retail loan and lease contracts. Residual value guarantees represent the Company’s commitment to acquire trucks at a guaranteed value if the customer decides to return the truck at a specified date in the future.

 

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RECONCILIATION OF GAAP TO NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES:

This Form 10-K includes “adjusted net income (non-GAAP)” and “adjusted net income per diluted share (non-GAAP)”, which are financial measures that are not in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), since they exclude the non-recurring EC charge in 2016. These measures differ from the most directly comparable measures calculated in accordance with GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies. In addition, the Form 10-K includes the financial ratios noted below calculated based on non-GAAP measures.

Management utilizes these non-GAAP measures to evaluate the Company’s performance and believes these measures allow investors and management to evaluate operating trends by excluding a significant non-recurring charge that is not representative of underlying operating trends.

Reconciliations from the most directly comparable GAAP measures to adjusted non-GAAP measures are as follows:

 

($ in millions, except per share amounts)

Year Ended December 31, 2016

 

Net income

   $ 521.7  

Non-recurring European Commission charge

     833.0  
  

 

 

 

Adjusted net income (non-GAAP)

   $ 1,354.7  

Per diluted share:

  

Net income

   $ 1.48  

Non-recurring European Commission charge

     2.37  
  

 

 

 

Adjusted net income (non-GAAP)

   $ 3.85  

After-tax return on revenues

     3.1

Non-recurring European Commission charge

     4.9
  

 

 

 

After-tax adjusted return on revenues (non-GAAP)*

     8.0

After-tax return on beginning equity

     7.5

Non-recurring European Commission charge

     12.0
  

 

 

 

After-tax adjusted return on beginning equity (non-GAAP)*

     19.5
  

 

 

 

 

* Calculated using adjusted net income.

 

(in millions, except per share amounts)

   Quarter Ended
March 31, 2016
    Quarter Ended
June 30,  2016
 

Net (loss) income

   $ (594.6   $ 481.3  

Non-recurring European Commission charge

     942.6       (109.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted net income (non-GAAP)

   $ 348.0     $ 371.7  

Per diluted share:

    

Net (loss) income

   $ (1.69   $ 1.37  

Non-recurring European Commission charge

     2.68       (.31
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted net income (non-GAAP)

   $ .99     $ 1.06  

Shares used in diluted share calculations:

    

GAAP

     351.3       351.6  

Non-GAAP

     351.9       351.6  

 

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IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS:

The Company, its competitors and industry in general are subject to various domestic and foreign requirements relating to the environment. The Company believes its policies, practices and procedures are designed to prevent unreasonable risk of environmental damage and that its handling, use and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances have been in accordance with environmental laws and regulations in effect at the time such use and disposal occurred.

The Company is involved in various stages of investigations and cleanup actions in different countries related to environmental matters. In certain of these matters, the Company has been designated as a “potentially responsible party” by domestic and foreign environmental agencies. The Company has accrued the estimated costs to investigate and complete cleanup actions where it is probable that the Company will incur such costs in the future. Expenditures related to environmental activities in the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were $2.2 million, $2.0 million and $1.2 million, respectively. Management expects that these matters will not have a significant effect on the Company’s consolidated cash flow, liquidity or financial condition.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES:

The Company’s significant accounting policies are disclosed in Note A of the consolidated financial statements. In the preparation of the Company’s financial statements, in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, management uses estimates and makes judgments and assumptions that affect asset and liability values and the amounts reported as income and expense during the periods presented. The following are accounting policies which, in the opinion of management, are particularly sensitive and which, if actual results are different from estimates used by management, may have a material impact on the financial statements.

Operating Leases

Trucks sold pursuant to agreements accounted for as operating leases are disclosed in Note E of the consolidated financial statements. In determining its estimate of the residual value of such vehicles, the Company considers the length of the lease term, the truck model, the expected usage of the truck and anticipated market demand. Operating lease terms generally range from three to five years. The resulting residual values on operating leases generally range between 30% and 60% of original equipment cost. If the sales price of the trucks at the end of the term of the agreement differs from the Company’s estimated residual value, a gain or loss will result.

Future market conditions, changes in government regulations and other factors outside the Company’s control could impact the ultimate sales price of trucks returned under these contracts. Residual values are reviewed regularly and adjusted if market conditions warrant. A decrease in the estimated equipment residual values would increase annual depreciation expense over the remaining lease term.

During 2016, market values on equipment returning upon operating lease maturity decreased, resulting in an increase in depreciation expense of $9.6 million. During 2015 and 2014, market values on equipment returning upon operating lease maturity were generally higher than the residual values on the equipment, resulting in a reduction in depreciation expense of $5.8 million and $10.6 million, respectively.

At December 31, 2016, the aggregate residual value of equipment on operating leases in the Financial Services segment and residual value guarantee on trucks accounted for as operating leases in the Truck segment was $2.31 billion. A 10% decrease in used truck values worldwide, if expected to persist over the remaining maturities of the Company’s operating leases, would reduce residual value estimates and result in the Company recording an average of approximately $57.7 million of additional depreciation per year.

Allowance for Credit Losses

The allowance for credit losses related to the Company’s loans and finance leases is disclosed in Note D of the consolidated financial statements. The Company has developed a systematic methodology for determining the allowance for credit losses for its two portfolio segments, retail and wholesale. The retail segment consists of retail loans and direct and sales-type finance leases, net of unearned interest. The wholesale segment consists of truck inventory financing loans to dealers that are collateralized by trucks and other collateral. The wholesale segment generally has less risk than the retail segment. Wholesale receivables generally are shorter in duration than retail receivables, and the Company requires periodic reporting of the wholesale dealer’s financial condition, conducts periodic audits of the trucks being financed and in many cases, obtains guarantees or other security such as dealership assets. In determining the allowance for credit losses, retail loans and finance leases are evaluated together since they relate to a similar customer base, their contractual terms require regular payment of principal and interest, generally over 36 to 60 months, and they are secured by the same type of collateral. The allowance for credit losses consists of both specific and general reserves.

 

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The Company individually evaluates certain finance receivables for impairment. Finance receivables that are evaluated individually for impairment consist of all wholesale accounts and certain large retail accounts with past due balances or otherwise determined to be at a higher risk of loss. A finance receivable is impaired if it is considered probable the Company will be unable to collect all contractual interest and principal payments as scheduled. In addition, all retail loans and leases which have been classified as TDRs and all customer accounts over 90 days past due are considered impaired. Generally, impaired accounts are on non-accrual status. Impaired accounts classified as TDRs which have been performing for 90 consecutive days are placed on accrual status if it is deemed probable that the Company will collect all principal and interest payments.

Impaired receivables are generally considered collateral dependent. Large balance retail and all wholesale impaired receivables are individually evaluated to determine the appropriate reserve for losses. The determination of reserves for large balance impaired receivables considers the fair value of the associated collateral. When the underlying collateral fair value exceeds the Company’s recorded investment, no reserve is recorded. Small balance impaired receivables with similar risk characteristics are evaluated as a separate pool to determine the appropriate reserve for losses using the historical loss information discussed below.

The Company evaluates finance receivables that are not individually impaired on a collective basis and determines the general allowance for credit losses for both retail and wholesale receivables based on historical loss information, using past due account data and current market conditions. Information used includes assumptions regarding the likelihood of collecting current and past due accounts, repossession rates, the recovery rate on the underlying collateral based on used truck values and other pledged collateral or recourse. The Company has developed a range of loss estimates for each of its country portfolios based on historical experience, taking into account loss frequency and severity in both strong and weak truck market conditions. A projection is made of the range of estimated credit losses inherent in the portfolio from which an amount is determined as probable based on current market conditions and other factors impacting the creditworthiness of the Company’s borrowers and their ability to repay. After determining the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses, a provision for losses on finance receivables is charged to income as necessary to reflect management’s estimate of incurred credit losses, net of recoveries, inherent in the portfolio.

The adequacy of the allowance is evaluated quarterly based on the most recent past due account information and current market conditions. As accounts become past due, the likelihood that they will not be fully collected increases. The Company’s experience indicates the probability of not fully collecting past due accounts ranges between 20% and 70%. Over the past three years, the Company’s year-end 30+ days past due accounts were .5% of loan and lease receivables. Historically, a 100 basis point increase in the 30+ days past due percentage has resulted in an increase in credit losses of 5 to 30 basis points of receivables. At December 31, 2016, 30+ days past dues were .5%. If past dues were 100 basis points higher or 1.5% as of December 31, 2016, the Company’s estimate of credit losses would likely have increased by a range of $5 to $20 million depending on the extent of the past dues, the estimated value of the collateral as compared to amounts owed and general economic factors.

Product Warranty

Product warranty is disclosed in Note H of the consolidated financial statements. The expenses related to product warranty are estimated and recorded at the time products are sold based on historical and current data and reasonable expectations for the future regarding the frequency and cost of warranty claims, net of recoveries. Management takes actions to minimize warranty costs through quality-improvement programs; however, actual claim costs incurred could materially differ from the estimated amounts and require adjustments to the reserve. Historically those adjustments have not been material. Over the past three years, warranty expense as a percentage of Truck, Parts and Other net sales and revenues has ranged between 1.3% and 1.8%. If the 2016 warranty expense had been .2% higher as a percentage of net sales and revenues in 2016, warranty expense would have increased by approximately $32 million.

Pension Benefits

Employee benefits are disclosed in Note L of the consolidated financial statements. The Company’s accounting for employee pension benefit costs and obligations is based on management assumptions about the future used by actuaries to estimate net costs and liabilities. These assumptions include discount rates, long-term rates of return on plan assets, inflation rates, retirement rates, mortality rates and other factors. Management bases these assumptions on historical results, the current environment and reasonable estimates of future events.

The discount rate for pension benefits is based on market interest rates of high quality corporate bonds with a maturity profile that matches the timing of the projected benefit payments of the plans. Changes in the discount rate affect the valuation of the plan benefits obligation and funded status of the plans. The long-term rate of return on plan assets is based on projected returns for each asset class and relative weighting of those asset classes in the plans.

 

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Because differences between actual results and the assumptions for returns on plan assets, retirement rates and mortality rates are accumulated and amortized into expense over future periods, management does not believe these differences or a typical percentage change in these assumptions worldwide would have a material effect on its financial results in the next year. The most significant assumption which could negatively affect pension expense is a decrease in the discount rate. If the discount rate were to decrease .5%, 2016 net pension expense would increase to $92.9 million from $70.1 million and the projected benefit obligation would increase $208.0 million to $2.7 billion from $2.5 billion.

Effective January 2017, the Company will change the method used to estimate service cost and interest cost components of pension expense from a single weighted-average method, which is a single discount rate determined at the pension plans’ measurement date, to an individual spot rate approach, which applies specific spot rates along the yield curve to the relevant projected cash flows. This approach is a more precise measurement of net periodic benefit costs and does not impact the benefit obligation. The Company considers this a change in estimate inseparable from a change in accounting principle, which will be accounted for prospectively. This change is expected to lower pension expense by approximately $15.0 million in 2017.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are disclosed in Note M of the consolidated financial statements. The Company calculates income tax expense on pre-tax income based on current tax law. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for future tax consequences on temporary differences between recorded amounts in the financial statements and their respective tax basis. The determination of income tax expense requires management estimates and involves judgment regarding indefinitely reinvested foreign earnings, jurisdictional mix of earnings and future outcomes regarding tax law issues included in tax returns. The Company updates its assumptions on all of these factors each quarter as well as new information on tax laws and differences between estimated taxes and actual returns when filed. If the Company’s assessment of these matters changes, the effect is accounted for in earnings in the period the change is made.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS:

This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include statements relating to future results of operations or financial position and any other statement that does not relate to any historical or current fact. Such statements are based on currently available operating, financial and other information and are subject to risks and uncertainties that may affect actual results. Risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: a significant decline in industry sales; competitive pressures; reduced market share; reduced availability of or higher prices for fuel; increased safety, emissions, or other regulations resulting in higher costs and/or sales restrictions; currency or commodity price fluctuations; lower used truck prices; insufficient or under-utilization of manufacturing capacity; supplier interruptions; insufficient liquidity in the capital markets; fluctuations in interest rates; changes in the levels of the Financial Services segment new business volume due to unit fluctuations in new PACCAR truck sales or reduced market shares; changes affecting the profitability of truck owners and operators; price changes impacting truck sales prices and residual values; insufficient supplier capacity or access to raw materials; labor disruptions; shortages of commercial truck drivers; increased warranty costs or litigation; or legislative and governmental regulations. A more detailed description of these and other risks is included under the heading Part 1, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.

 

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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

Currencies are presented in millions for the market risks and derivative instruments sections below.

Interest-Rate Risks - See Note O for a description of the Company’s hedging programs and exposure to interest rate fluctuations. The Company measures its interest-rate risk by estimating the amount by which the fair value of interest-rate sensitive assets and liabilities, including derivative financial instruments, would change assuming an immediate 100 basis point increase across the yield curve as shown in the following table:

 

Fair Value Gains (Losses)

   2016     2015  

CONSOLIDATED:

    

Assets

    

Cash equivalents and marketable debt securities

   $ (20.0   $ (21.7

FINANCIAL SERVICES:

    

Assets

    

Fixed rate loans

     (68.3     (71.3

Liabilities

    

Fixed rate term debt

     95.0        79.0   

Interest-rate swaps

     4.8        19.3   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

   $ 11.5      $ 5.3   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Currency Risks - The Company enters into foreign currency exchange contracts to hedge its exposure to exchange rate fluctuations of foreign currencies, particularly the Canadian dollar, the euro, the British pound, the Australian dollar, the Brazilian real and the Mexican peso (see Note O for additional information concerning these hedges). Based on the Company’s sensitivity analysis, the potential loss in fair value for such financial instruments from a 10% unfavorable change in quoted foreign currency exchange rates would be a loss of $31.5 related to contracts outstanding at December 31, 2016, compared to a loss of $30.4 at December 31, 2015. These amounts would be largely offset by changes in the values of the underlying hedged exposures.

 

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2016      2015      2014  
     (millions, except per share data)  

TRUCK, PARTS AND OTHER:

        

Net sales and revenues

   $ 15,846.6       $ 17,942.8       $ 17,792.8   

Cost of sales and revenues

     13,517.7         15,292.1         15,481.6   

Research and development

     247.2         239.8         215.6   

Selling, general and administrative

     440.8         445.9         465.2   

European Commission charge

     833.0         

Interest and other expense, net

     11.6         12.3         5.5   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     15,050.3         15,990.1         16,167.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Truck, Parts and Other Income Before Income Taxes

     796.3         1,952.7         1,624.9   

FINANCIAL SERVICES:

        

Interest and fees

     426.2         443.8         462.6   

Operating lease, rental and other revenues

     760.5         728.5         741.6   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Revenues

     1,186.7         1,172.3         1,204.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Interest and other borrowing expenses

     127.2         118.0         133.7   

Depreciation and other expenses

     635.2         583.7         588.5   

Selling, general and administrative

     99.4         95.6         96.2   

Provision for losses on receivables

     18.4         12.4         15.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     880.2         809.7         833.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Financial Services Income Before Income Taxes

     306.5         362.6         370.4   

Investment income

     27.6         21.8         22.3   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Income Before Income Taxes

     1,130.4         2,337.1         2,017.6   

Income taxes

     608.7         733.1         658.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Income

   $ 521.7       $ 1,604.0       $ 1,358.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Income Per Share

        

Basic

   $ 1.49       $ 4.52       $ 3.83   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Diluted

   $ 1.48       $ 4.51       $ 3.82   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding

        

Basic

     351.1         354.6         355.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Diluted

     351.8         355.6         356.1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2016     2015     2014  
     (millions)  

Net income

   $ 521.7      $ 1,604.0      $ 1,358.8   

Other comprehensive income (loss):

      

Unrealized (losses) gains on derivative contracts

      

Net (loss) gain arising during the period

     (6.5     38.7        26.1   

Tax effect

     6.7        (10.8     (6.1

Reclassification adjustment

     10.8        (29.3     (23.5

Tax effect

     (8.9     8.5        5.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     2.1        7.1        1.6   

Unrealized (losses) gains on marketable debt securities

      

Net holding (loss) gain

     (.1     (2.3     5.5   

Tax effect

     .4        .6        (1.3

Reclassification adjustment

     (3.7     (2.1     (.9

Tax effect

     1.0        .6        .3   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     (2.4     (3.2     3.6   

Pension plans

      

Net (loss) gain arising during the period

     (50.3     17.7        (291.1

Tax effect

     7.7        (2.6     105.3   

Reclassification adjustment

     28.9        42.4        22.0   

Tax effect

     (10.0     (14.8     (7.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     (23.7     42.7        (170.9

Foreign currency translation loss

     (87.1     (483.8     (422.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net other comprehensive loss

     (111.1     (437.2     (588.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive Income

   $ 410.6      $ 1,166.8      $ 770.3   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

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CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

 

December 31,

   2016      2015  
     (millions)  

ASSETS

     

TRUCK, PARTS AND OTHER:

     

Current Assets

     

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 1,781.7       $ 1,929.9   

Trade and other receivables, net

     862.2         879.0   

Marketable debt securities

     1,140.9         1,448.1   

Inventories, net

     727.8         796.5   

Other current assets

     225.6         245.7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Truck, Parts and Other Current Assets

     4,738.2         5,299.2   

Equipment on operating leases, net

     1,013.9         992.2   

Property, plant and equipment, net

     2,260.0         2,176.4   

Other noncurrent assets, net

     432.0         387.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Truck, Parts and Other Assets

     8,444.1         8,855.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

FINANCIAL SERVICES:

     

Cash and cash equivalents

     134.0         86.5   

Finance and other receivables, net

     8,837.4         9,303.6   

Equipment on operating leases, net

     2,623.9         2,380.8   

Other assets

     599.5         483.7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Financial Services Assets

     12,194.8         12,254.6   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 20,638.9       $ 21,109.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

 

December 31,

   2016     2015  
     (millions)  

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

    

TRUCK, PARTS AND OTHER:

    

Current Liabilities

    

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other

   $ 2,034.1      $ 2,071.7   

Dividend payable

     210.4        492.6   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Truck, Parts and Other Current Liabilities

     2,244.5        2,564.3   

Residual value guarantees and deferred revenues

     1,072.6        1,047.4   

Other liabilities

     739.1        720.2   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Truck, Parts and Other Liabilities

     4,056.2        4,331.9   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

FINANCIAL SERVICES:

    

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other

     395.0        356.9   

Commercial paper and bank loans

     2,447.5        2,796.5   

Term notes

     6,027.7        5,795.0   

Deferred taxes and other liabilities

     934.9        889.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Financial Services Liabilities

     9,805.1        9,837.5   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:

    

Preferred stock, no par value - authorized 1.0 million shares, none issued

    

Common stock, $1 par value - authorized 1.2 billion shares; issued 350.7 million and 351.3 million shares

     350.7        351.3   

Additional paid-in capital

     70.1        69.3   

Retained earnings

     7,484.9        7,536.8   

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (1,128.1     (1,017.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Stockholders’ Equity

     6,777.6        6,940.4   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 
   $ 20,638.9      $ 21,109.8   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2016     2015     2014  
     (millions)  

OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

      

Net Income

   $ 521.7      $ 1,604.0      $ 1,358.8   

Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by operations:

      

Depreciation and amortization:

      

Property, plant and equipment

     302.4        292.2        285.2   

Equipment on operating leases and other

     690.7        614.9        632.5   

Provision for losses on financial services receivables

     18.4        12.4        15.4   

Deferred taxes

     30.9        (55.2     (98.0

Other, net

     30.3        46.6        40.4   

Pension contributions

     (185.7     (62.9     (81.1

Change in operating assets and liabilities:

      

(Increase) decrease in assets other than cash and cash equivalents:

      

Receivables:

      

Trade and other receivables

     (61.8     105.3        (71.3

Wholesale receivables on new trucks

     401.6        (273.4     (232.8

Sales-type finance leases and dealer direct loans on new trucks

     116.1        (6.6     (133.1

Inventories

     64.1        64.3        (189.5

Other assets, net

     41.0        (125.1     (72.0

(Decrease) increase in liabilities:

      

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

     (8.6     (162.6     252.3   

Residual value guarantees and deferred revenues

     155.9        242.0        123.1   

Other liabilities, net

     183.8        260.1        293.7   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

     2,300.8        2,556.0        2,123.6   

INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

      

Originations of retail loans and direct financing leases

     (2,825.9     (3,064.5     (3,114.2

Collections on retail loans and direct financing leases

     2,509.8        2,681.9        2,847.6   

Net decrease (increase) in wholesale receivables on used equipment

     9.5        (24.7     1.1   

Purchases of marketable debt securities

     (1,031.9     (1,329.8     (1,122.5

Proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable debt securities

     1,304.8        1,035.5        997.9   

Payments for property, plant and equipment

     (375.2     (286.7     (298.2

Acquisitions of equipment for operating leases

     (1,589.7     (1,438.5     (1,239.1

Proceeds from asset disposals

     433.8        448.8        395.5   

Other, net

     .5        3.1     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

     (1,564.3     (1,974.9     (1,531.9

FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

      

Payments of cash dividends

     (829.3     (680.5     (623.8

Purchases of treasury stock

     (70.5     (201.6     (42.7

Proceeds from stock compensation transactions

     29.4        21.8        29.1   

Net (decrease) increase in commercial paper and short-term bank loans

     (322.8     250.7        349.1   

Proceeds from term debt

     1,994.8        1,993.2        1,650.8   

Payments on term debt

     (1,625.1     (1,580.1     (1,883.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Cash Used in Financing Activities

     (823.5     (196.5     (520.5

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

     (13.7     (105.8     (83.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (Decrease) Increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents

     (100.7     278.8        (12.5

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

     2,016.4        1,737.6        1,750.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of year

   $ 1,915.7      $ 2,016.4      $ 1,737.6   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

December 31,

   2016     2015     2014  
     (millions, except per share data)  

COMMON STOCK, $1 PAR VALUE:

      

Balance at beginning of year

   $ 351.3      $ 355.2      $ 354.3   

Treasury stock retirement

     (1.4     (4.6  

Stock compensation

     .8        .7        .9   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

     350.7        351.3        355.2   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL PAID-IN CAPITAL:

      

Balance at beginning of year

     69.3        156.7        106.2   

Treasury stock retirement

     (43.4     (128.5  

Stock compensation and tax benefit

     44.2        41.1        50.5   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

     70.1        69.3        156.7   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

TREASURY STOCK, AT COST:

      

Balance at beginning of year

       (42.7  

Purchases, shares: 2016 - 1.38; 2015 - 3.85; 2014 - .73

     (70.5     (201.6     (42.7

Retirements

     70.5        244.3     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

         (42.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

RETAINED EARNINGS:

      

Balance at beginning of year

     7,536.8        6,863.8        6,165.1   

Net income

     521.7        1,604.0        1,358.8   

Cash dividends declared on common stock,
per share: 2016 - $1.56; 2015 - $2.32; 2014 - $1.86

     (547.9     (819.8     (660.1

Treasury stock retirement

     (25.7     (111.2  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

     7,484.9        7,536.8        6,863.8   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS:

      

Balance at beginning of year

     (1,017.0     (579.8     8.7   

Other comprehensive loss

     (111.1     (437.2     (588.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

     (1,128.1     (1,017.0     (579.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Stockholders’ Equity

   $ 6,777.6      $ 6,940.4      $ 6,753.2   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 (currencies in millions)

 

A. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Description of Operations: PACCAR Inc (the Company or PACCAR) is a multinational company operating in three principal segments: (1) the Truck segment includes the design and manufacture of high-quality, light-, medium- and heavy-duty commercial trucks; (2) the Parts segment includes the distribution of aftermarket parts for trucks and related commercial vehicles; and (3) the Financial Services segment (PFS) includes finance and leasing products and services provided to customers and dealers. PACCAR’s finance and leasing activities are principally related to PACCAR products and associated equipment. PACCAR’s sales and revenues are derived primarily from North America and Europe. The Company also operates in Australia and Brasil and sells trucks and parts to customers in Asia, Africa, Middle East and South America.

Principles of Consolidation: The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Revenue Recognition:

Truck, Parts and Other: Substantially all sales and revenues of trucks and related aftermarket parts are recorded by the Company when products are shipped to dealers or customers, except for certain truck shipments that are subject to a residual value guarantee to the customer. Revenues related to these shipments are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the guarantee period (see Note E). At the time certain truck and parts sales to a dealer are recognized, the Company records an estimate of any future sales incentive costs related to such sales. The estimate is based on historical data and announced incentive programs. In the Truck and Parts segments, the Company grants extended payment terms on selected receivables. Interest is charged for the period beyond standard payment terms. Interest income is recorded as earned.

Financial Services: Interest income from finance and other receivables is recognized using the interest method. Certain loan origination costs are deferred and amortized to interest income over the expected life of the contracts, generally 36 to 60 months, using the straight-line method which approximates the interest method. For operating leases, rental revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Rental revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were $698.9, $668.6 and $681.5, respectively. Depreciation and related leased unit operating expenses were $581.7, $536.2 and $544.0 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Recognition of interest income and rental revenue is suspended (put on non-accrual status) when the receivable becomes more than 90 days past the contractual due date or earlier if some other event causes the Company to determine that collection is not probable. Accordingly, no finance receivables more than 90 days past due were accruing interest at December 31, 2016 or December 31, 2015. Recognition is resumed if the receivable becomes current by the payment of all amounts due under the terms of the existing contract and collection of remaining amounts is considered probable (if not contractually modified) or if the customer makes scheduled payments for three months and collection of remaining amounts is considered probable (if contractually modified). Payments received while the finance receivable is on non-accrual status are applied to interest and principal in accordance with the contractual terms.

Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash equivalents consist of liquid investments with a maturity at date of purchase of 90 days or less.

Marketable Debt Securities: The Company’s investments in marketable debt securities are classified as available-for-sale. These investments are stated at fair value with any unrealized gains or losses, net of tax, included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (AOCI).

The Company utilizes third-party pricing services for all of its marketable debt security valuations. The Company reviews the pricing methodology used by the third-party pricing services, including the manner employed to collect market information. On a quarterly basis, the Company also performs review and validation procedures on the pricing information received from the third-party providers. These procedures help ensure that the fair value information used by the Company is determined in accordance with applicable accounting guidance.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 (currencies in millions)

 

The Company evaluates its investment in marketable debt securities at the end of each reporting period to determine if a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary. Realized losses are recognized upon management’s determination that a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary. The determination of other-than-temporary impairment is a subjective process, requiring the use of judgments and assumptions regarding the amount and timing of recovery. The Company reviews and evaluates its investments at least quarterly to identify investments that have indications of other-than-temporary impairments. It is reasonably possible that a change in estimate could occur in the near term relating to other-than-temporary impairment. Accordingly, the Company considers several factors when evaluating debt securities for other-than-temporary impairment, including whether the decline in fair value of the security is due to increased default risk for the specific issuer or market interest-rate risk.

In assessing default risk, the Company considers the collectability of principal and interest payments by monitoring changes to issuers’ credit ratings, specific credit events associated with individual issuers as well as the credit ratings of any financial guarantor, and the extent and duration to which amortized cost exceeds fair value.

In assessing market interest-rate risk, including benchmark interest rates and credit spreads, the Company considers its intent for selling the securities and whether it is more likely than not the Company will be able to hold these securities until the recovery of any unrealized losses.

Receivables:

Trade and Other Receivables: The Company’s trade and other receivables are recorded at cost, net of allowances. At December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, trade and other receivables include trade receivables from dealers and customers of $734.6 and $739.2 and other receivables of $127.6 and $139.8 relating primarily to value added tax receivables and supplier allowances and rebates.

Finance and Other Receivables:

Loans – Loans represent fixed or floating-rate loans to customers collateralized by the vehicles purchased and are recorded at amortized cost.

Finance leases – Finance leases are retail direct financing leases and sales-type finance leases, which lease equipment to retail customers and dealers. These leases are reported as the sum of minimum lease payments receivable and estimated residual value of the property subject to the contracts, reduced by unearned interest which is shown separately.

Dealer wholesale financing – Dealer wholesale financing is floating-rate wholesale loans to PACCAR dealers for new and used trucks and are recorded at amortized cost. The loans are collateralized by the trucks being financed.

Operating lease receivables and other – Operating lease receivables and other include monthly rentals due on operating leases, unamortized loan and lease origination costs, interest on loans and other amounts due within one year in the normal course of business.

Allowance for Credit Losses:

Truck, Parts and Other: The Company historically has not experienced significant losses or past due amounts on trade and other receivables in its Truck, Parts and Other businesses. Accounts are considered past due once the unpaid balance is over 30 days outstanding based on contractual payment terms. Accounts are charged-off against the allowance for credit losses when, in the judgment of management, they are considered uncollectible. The allowance for credit losses for Truck, Parts and Other was $1.7 and $1.3 for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Net charge-offs were $.1, $.3 and $.2 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Financial Services: The Company continuously monitors the payment performance of its finance receivables. For large retail finance customers and dealers with wholesale financing, the Company regularly reviews their financial statements and makes site visits and phone contact as appropriate. If the Company becomes aware of circumstances that could cause those customers or dealers to face financial difficulty, whether or not they are past due, the customers are placed on a watch list.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 (currencies in millions)

 

The Company modifies loans and finance leases in the normal course of its Financial Services operations. The Company may modify loans and finance leases for commercial reasons or for credit reasons. Modifications for commercial reasons are changes to contract terms for customers that are not considered to be in financial difficulty. Insignificant delays are modifications extending terms up to three months for customers experiencing some short-term financial stress, but not considered to be in financial difficulty. Modifications for credit reasons are changes to contract terms for customers considered to be in financial difficulty. The Company’s modifications typically result in granting more time to pay the contractual amounts owed and charging a fee and interest for the term of the modification.

When considering whether to modify customer accounts for credit reasons, the Company evaluates the creditworthiness of the customers and modifies those accounts that the Company considers likely to perform under the modified terms. When the Company modifies loans and finance leases for credit reasons and grants a concession, the modifications are classified as troubled debt restructurings (TDR). The Company does not typically grant credit modifications for customers that do not meet minimum underwriting standards since the Company normally repossesses the financed equipment in these circumstances. When such modifications do occur, they are considered TDRs.

On average, modifications extended contractual terms by approximately four months in 2016 and seven months in 2015 and did not have a significant effect on the weighted average term or interest rate of the total portfolio at December 31, 2016 and 2015.

The Company has developed a systematic methodology for determining the allowance for credit losses for its two portfolio segments, retail and wholesale. The retail segment consists of retail loans and direct and sales-type finance leases, net of unearned interest. The wholesale segment consists of truck inventory financing loans to dealers that are collateralized by trucks and other collateral. The wholesale segment generally has less risk than the retail segment. Wholesale receivables generally are shorter in duration than retail receivables, and the Company requires periodic reporting of the wholesale dealer’s financial condition, conducts periodic audits of the trucks being financed and in many cases, obtains guarantees or other security such as dealership assets. In determining the allowance for credit losses, retail loans and finance leases are evaluated together since they relate to a similar customer base, their contractual terms require regular payment of principal and interest, generally over 36 to 60 months, and they are secured by the same type of collateral. The allowance for credit losses consists of both specific and general reserves.

The Company individually evaluates certain finance receivables for impairment. Finance receivables that are evaluated individually for impairment consist of all wholesale accounts and certain large retail accounts with past due balances or otherwise determined to be at a higher risk of loss. A finance receivable is impaired if it is considered probable the Company will be unable to collect all contractual interest and principal payments as scheduled. In addition, all retail loans and leases which have been classified as TDRs and all customer accounts over 90 days past due are considered impaired. Generally, impaired accounts are on non-accrual status. Impaired accounts classified as TDRs which have been performing for 90 consecutive days are placed on accrual status if it is deemed probable that the Company will collect all principal and interest payments.

Impaired receivables are generally considered collateral dependent. Large balance retail and all wholesale impaired receivables are individually evaluated to determine the appropriate reserve for losses. The determination of reserves for large balance impaired receivables considers the fair value of the associated collateral. When the underlying collateral fair value exceeds the Company’s recorded investment, no reserve is recorded. Small balance impaired receivables with similar risk characteristics are evaluated as a separate pool to determine the appropriate reserve for losses using the historical loss information discussed below.

The Company evaluates finance receivables that are not individually impaired on a collective basis and determines the general allowance for credit losses for both retail and wholesale receivables based on historical loss information, using past due account data and current market conditions. Information used includes assumptions regarding the likelihood of collecting current and past due accounts, repossession rates, the recovery rate on the underlying collateral based on used truck values and other pledged collateral or recourse. The Company has developed a range of loss estimates for each of its country portfolios based on historical experience, taking into account loss frequency and severity in both strong and weak truck market conditions. A projection is made of the range of estimated credit losses inherent in the portfolio from which an amount is determined as probable based on current market conditions and other factors impacting the creditworthiness of the Company’s borrowers and their ability to repay. After determining the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses, a provision for losses on finance receivables is charged to income as necessary to reflect management’s estimate of incurred credit losses, net of recoveries, inherent in the portfolio.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 (currencies in millions)

 

In determining the fair value of the collateral, the Company uses a pricing matrix and categorizes the fair value as Level 2 in the hierarchy of fair value measurement. The pricing matrix is reviewed quarterly and updated as appropriate. The pricing matrix considers the make, model and year of the equipment as well as recent sales prices of comparable equipment sold individually, which is the lowest unit of account, through wholesale channels to the Company’s dealers (principal market). The fair value of the collateral also considers the overall condition of the equipment.

Accounts are charged-off against the allowance for credit losses when, in the judgment of management, they are considered uncollectible, which generally occurs upon repossession of the collateral. Typically the timing between the repossession and charge-off is not significant. In cases where repossession is delayed (e.g., for legal proceedings), the Company records a partial charge-off. The charge-off is determined by comparing the fair value of the collateral, less cost to sell, to the recorded investment.

Inventories: Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost of inventories in the U.S. is determined principally by the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method. Cost of all other inventories is determined principally by the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Cost of sales and revenues include shipping and handling costs incurred to deliver products to dealers and customers.

Equipment on Operating Leases: The Company’s Financial Services segment leases equipment under operating leases to its customers. In addition, in the Truck segment, equipment sold to customers in Europe subject to a residual value guarantee (RVG) by the Company is generally accounted for as an operating lease. Equipment is recorded at cost and is depreciated on the straight-line basis to the lower of the estimated residual value or guarantee value. Lease and guarantee periods generally range from three to five years. Estimated useful lives of the equipment range from four to nine years. The Company reviews residual values of equipment on operating leases periodically to determine that recorded amounts are appropriate.

Property, Plant and Equipment: Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed principally by the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the various classes of assets. Certain production tooling is amortized on a unit of production basis.

Long-lived Assets and Goodwill: The Company evaluates the carrying value of property, plant and equipment when events and circumstances warrant a review. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least on an annual basis. There were no impairment charges for the three years ended December 31, 2016. Goodwill was $103.0 and $105.6 at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The decrease in value was mostly due to currency translation.

Product Support Liabilities: Product support liabilities include estimated future payments related to product warranties and deferred revenues on optional extended warranties and repair and maintenance (R&M) contracts. The Company generally offers one year warranties covering most of its vehicles and related aftermarket parts. For vehicles equipped with engines manufactured by PACCAR, the Company generally offers two year warranties on the engine. Specific terms and conditions vary depending on the product and the country of sale. Optional extended warranty and R&M contracts can be purchased for periods which generally range up to five years. Warranty expenses and reserves are estimated and recorded at the time products or contracts are sold based on historical data regarding the source, frequency and cost of claims, net of any recoveries. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of its recorded liabilities and adjusts them as appropriate to reflect actual experience. Revenue from extended warranty and R&M contracts is deferred and recognized to income generally on a straight-line basis over the contract period. Warranty and R&M costs on these contracts are recognized as incurred.

Derivative Financial Instruments: As part of its risk management strategy, the Company enters into derivative contracts to hedge against interest rates and foreign currency risk. Certain derivative instruments designated as either cash flow hedges or fair value hedges are subject to hedge accounting. Derivative instruments that are not subject to hedge accounting are held as economic hedges. The Company’s policies prohibit the use of derivatives for speculation or trading. At the inception of each hedge relationship, the Company documents its risk management objectives, procedures and accounting treatment. All of the Company’s interest-rate and certain foreign-exchange contracts are transacted under International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) master agreements. Each agreement permits the net settlement of amounts owed in the event of default and certain other termination events. For derivative financial instruments, the Company has elected not to offset derivative positions in the balance sheet with the same counterparty under the same agreements and is not required to post or receive collateral. Exposure limits and minimum credit ratings are used to minimize the risks of counterparty default. The Company’s maximum exposure to potential default of its swap counterparties is limited to the asset position of its swap portfolio. The asset position of the Company’s swap portfolio is $109.7 at December 31, 2016.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 (currencies in millions)

 

The Company uses regression analysis to assess effectiveness of interest-rate contracts on a quarterly basis. For foreign-exchange contracts, the Company performs quarterly assessments to ensure that critical terms continue to match. All components of the derivative instrument’s gain or loss are included in the assessment of hedge effectiveness. Gains or losses on the ineffective portion of cash flow hedges are recognized currently in earnings. Hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively when the Company determines that a derivative financial instrument has ceased to be a highly effective hedge.

Foreign Currency Translation: For most of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries, the local currency is the functional currency. All assets and liabilities are translated at year-end exchange rates and all income statement amounts are translated at the weighted average rates for the period. Translation adjustments are recorded in AOCI. The Company uses the U.S. dollar as the functional currency for all but one of its Mexican subsidiaries, which uses the local currency. For the U.S. functional currency entities in Mexico, inventories, cost of sales, property, plant and equipment and depreciation are remeasured at historical rates and resulting adjustments are included in net income.

Earnings per Share: Basic earnings per common share are computed by dividing earnings by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, plus the effect of any participating securities. Diluted earnings per common share are computed assuming that all potentially dilutive securities are converted into common shares under the treasury stock method.

New Accounting Pronouncements: In October 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory. The amendment in this ASU requires recognition of income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. Currently the recognition of current and deferred income taxes for an intra-entity asset transfer is recognized when the asset has been sold to an outside party. This ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods, and early adoption is permitted. This amendment should be applied on a modified retrospective basis with a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company will adopt this ASU on January 1, 2017. The effect of the adoption will reduce prepaid income taxes and retained earnings by approximately $20.0. Because the corresponding deferred tax asset is not realizable, the Company will record an offsetting valuation allowance.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The amendment in this ASU addresses diversity in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted. This standard should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. If it is impracticable to apply the standard retrospectively, the standard would be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The amendment in this ASU requires entities having financial assets measured at amortized cost to estimate credit reserves under an expected credit loss model rather than the current incurred loss model. Under this new model, expected credit losses will be based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect collectability. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted, but not earlier than annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. This amendment should be applied on a modified retrospective basis with a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) which amends the existing accounting standards for leases. Under the new lease standard, lessees will recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for virtually all leases (other than short-term leases). Lessor accounting is largely unchanged. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted. This ASU requires leases to be recognized and measured at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.

 

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 (currencies in millions)

 

In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The amendment in this ASU addresses the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods. This amendment is applied with a cumulative effect adjustment as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. This ASU amends the existing accounting standards for revenue recognition. Under the new revenue recognition model, a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The FASB has subsequently issued several related ASUs to clarify the implementation guidance in ASU 2014-09. This standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or modified retrospectively with cumulative effect recognized as of the date of initial application. The Company expects to adopt this ASU in January 2018 on a modified retrospective basis, with the cumulative effect adjustment recognized into retained earnings as of January 1, 2018.

The Company’s evaluation of the new standard is substantially complete, and the Company does not expect adoption of the new standard to have a material impact on the income statement or retained earnings. The Company currently expects the most significant effect of the standard relates to trucks sold in Europe that are subject to an RVG and are currently accounted for as an operating lease in the Truck, Parts and Other section of the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets (see Note E). Under the new standard, based on the Company’s current assessment, revenues would be recognized immediately for certain of these RVG contracts that allow customers the option to return their truck and for which there is no economic incentive to do so. Based on the existing portfolio of RVG contracts, under the new standard, revenues are expected to be recognized immediately for approximately half of the RVG portfolio instead of being deferred and amortized over the life of the RVG contract. The Company will continue to evaluate the new standard, including any new interpretive guidance, and any related impact to its financial statements.

The FASB also issued the following standards, which are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

STANDARD    DESCRIPTION    EFFECTIVE DATE

2017-04

   Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment    January 1, 2020*  

2016-09

   Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.    January 1, 2017**

2015-11

   Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory.    January 1, 2017**

 

* The Company expects to early adopt in 2017.
** The Company expects to adopt on the effective date.

The Company adopted the following standards effective January 1, 2016, none of which had a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

STANDARD    DESCRIPTION                 &n